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ѹҷԵ 29 ѹ¹ 2562
Posted by പҴͧ , ҹ : 426 , 09:07:31 .  
Ǵ : ʹ

˹ҹ
ǵ 1 wullopp ǵͧ

ط仾ҳ ͧҨҡԹ

The Land of Buddhism from Bodh-Gaya to Varanasi

 

ࡵؾ

Prapas Kaewketpong

ѡԪҡ

.

ѧǪʶҹ ʶҹѹ繷觤ѧǪ 繤ӷ¡ʶҹͧѺоطѧǪʶҹ ¶֧ʶҹԴ֧֡֡оط Դ ԡҹ Դçѹ㨷зӤ 仾 ѧǪʶҹ  ʶҹٵ ʶҹ ʶҹʴȹʶҹԹԾҹ ѧǪʶҹ  觹 ҹʶҹþѡ ǧح ԴѧǪԴطҹʵ ѹѡҫ觺حФҺ ҡͤһԹԾҹٵ ʴѧǪʶҹ Դ¤йӢͧоطͧ “֧֡ͧ ֧ԡѧѧǪʶҹ” ͡ʷԹҧѡеºҷͧʴ㹤駹 Ҿ֧֡ѨҨҷзȾŷçʴ “һҷ” ֧ҷ ¢ͧѧ ֧ҷ㹪Ե Ե繢ͧ׹Թ»繷شҨе ҷ آͧѧФ͡عҡ ءþԵҨءҡҷ ֧ӡԨͧм֧¤ҷԹ¸çзҹ ʹç Թ·çѭѵ ʹҷ㹪ٷջ ش¡͹仨ҡçӢͧԹ ԵԷʹ֧ͨҡҼҹ͹µоطҷҡطاҳͧ ûСȸá ͹Դѷҵ;мվҤӴѺ                    

. طʶҹ

ط : 㹤駾ط

          ;ͧʴ͡ǪǡǧҤҨҡӹѡҧ ѷ㴷öйǷҧ觡ûԺѵͤش ҧҡش§ҹҺѵ ҹͧ ҡ鹾ͧʴ仵ʶҹѹʧ繷ѻûԺѵԸ վӹǹ ҹ(ѭѤ) Դ»ùԺѵҧ ѧ;ͧǨѡ͹ǡҧ ֧ͧçҷءԶշҧͷлԺѵѨ ͹ͧһԺѵѪһԻ (ҧ¡ҧ) ͧ绯Ժѵҧش ҷ 㨺ҧ Ѵѹҧ Ѵ鹺ҧ ʹúҧ ҧ駶֧Ѻ () شǧ͡ Ыմ§˹ѧд١ ᷺վСѧѺ͹á· ˵عͧѡҪŧҴմԳѧػ㨤 ·˹觹͹ԹͿѧ ·ͧ鹵֧Թ仴մѡѡ¢Ҵ ·鹾ʹԺʹշ§Գ觹ѡ Թѧ ҹҾ觾лѭҭҳªҵ  ֧ͧѹҤèлԺѵҧظ繢ͧԧѹ԰ ֧çѹһԺѵԵҧ¡ҧͷ¡ “ѪһԻ[1]

          ˵عͧѭѤ ¤ѷҷյ;ͧա˹ ¡ ⤴¤ѹѡҡ㹡ѡշҧظ͹ ǡҡѹ˹·ԻĤѹ ǧͧҳ 鹡 (ѨغѹùҶ) ;ͧѹ¾С ѺػʨҡйҧتҴ Ƿç¾Сù

          ͨҡ鹷ç͸ɰҹ¶Ҵ “ѭ” µ “ҡҢҾҨѡ繾طҢҴͧ·ǹʹӴԴ” 繴ѧͧ͸ɰҹԧ ҧҧ͹ʴ稢ѭҡչ¾˹觹 “ʵ¾” ˭ҡҶʹ (ٹ) ӹǹ ͧçʴ稢ѭһзѺ»˭ҤҢͧʵо⤹鹾⾸ ͧç觺Ѫʹ (ѧɼ觴ྪ) зç͸ɰҹ “ҧ¢ͧҨʹ§˹ѧд١ ѧ繾ط Ҩѡء͡ҡ蹹索Ҵ” зçͧͧçҪ١Ǣͧ[2] ҹѡ Ͷ֧ѹҢ ͹ ͧظ繾ط[3] ⤹鹾⾸ (Bodhi-Tree) ͧط (ѨغѹѰ) Ѻѭ   

          ͧçͧԧѹ԰ С “Ѩ ͧ” Ѩͷ ء ¶֧ء駻ǧԴ Ѩͷ ط ¶֧˵ط·駻ǧԴء Ѩͷ ø ¶֧ش鹨ҡء駻ǧ Ѩͷ ä ˹ҧԹش (ä) പФسҸԺ (ح) ¡ʶҹ ਴ͧҺɼ˭ ͧ稾ط

ط : 㹻Ѩغѹ

          ਴⾸ 繷зѺͧͧ稾мվҤ ѨغѹӺžط ͤ Ѱ Թ ѡɳٻ਴ դ٧ ص Ѵͺҹ . ٻçʧҧǹ 繷зѺôҼԹҧѡк٪ҧ

          չ 㹤¢ͧȡҪҧ÷ʧҧ˭ Ѱ ؤ¾оطʹͧҧҡ觷Ѱ· 仺ҹ˹ ͧ˹ о÷§º͹ͧ㹢й ҨҤ˹ ѧѴ˹ ҹ˹ Ѵ ǹ˵ط¡ “Ѱ” Ҩҡ “” ͧ Ѱ֧蹹 Ѱоطʹҵҡҹ繷㹡ûСȾʹҢͧоطͧ վҡѵҡؤաѧվǡСɰռ觤µСѰ

          ͻվطѡҪ ѵǾطй “Ԫ” Ԩó繤Ӥѭͧоطʹ 㹰ҹзط繾طʶҹ鹡Դѷ 繵鹡ԴͧоطʹҴ ֧ҧ͡Ẻҧ਴⾸  ͹ó֧ͧ稾ط ֧ҧ͡Ẻٻ਴ѧ ҧͧͧ਴ ҧ繷Һʡǧ;ط 鹷ͧͧԭԵǹҢͧҪǾط·դʧЪШԵͧͧͧͷͧԵԴʧ

          ͧҡҾ਴ͧ ׹ҡ֧աúóлѧóʹӴѺ ҨѰԹͧ ͪǾطҡѧ Ǿطҡ Ǿطҡ´ ੾ҧ觪ǾطԹҧҨҡͧ[4] 繵 ѹԨҤѨ㹡úóЫ 繷ԹͻվطѡҪ -  ժҧʹͧͧ਴ ѨغѹúóСºǷͧ਴դ§觡 ͧǪǹԴѷ觹ѡ

          dzͺ ࢵŢͧ਴⾸ ѧʶҹӤѭѹͧѺоطͧաҡ 觨ӾҷҹҹԴѹ ͹ТйʶҹӤѭ 繡êǹͧҾҡ͹Ҿԧ մѧ仹

ʶҹӤѭžط

ʶҹ

Ӥѭ

ͧ਴

ʶҹͧмվҤҧ¢ͧ “ԪС” (Huvishaka) ҧͻվطѡҪ

鹾⾸

˪ҵ (ԴѹѺоط)ʶҹоطҢз筸 (Ѩغѹ繵鹷 )

Ǫʹ

Թҧ¢ͧȡҪ ֧ͧ֡ʶҹзѺ觢ͧкʴҡ͹ѧ

͹਴

ѧ оطͧçصآѻ ç觴ٵ鹾⾸оԺ๵õʹ ѹ

ѵ਴

طҹó㹤صآѻá ԹҺӤѭͧ黯Ժѵԡҹ оطͧçԹ

ѵ਴

Ե͹ҧȾѾͧ鹾⾸оطͧصآѻ çԨóԸԯʹ ѹ

ȡ (ͧ)

͹ʵԾطҹóʶҹ ᴹͧмվҤѡɳԹ§ҢѴѹºѴͺҳ Ե ȡçҧء觢ͧѧǪʶҹ ҧҨ֡͹оطʹѡþը֡

بԹ (ͧ)

 

ͧçصآ ѻ ս˹ѡʹ ѹ ׹ ҹҤ “بԹ” ѧҹоطͧ

ҪµҪµ਴

(С) ѭ ҧҡبԹ§硹  оطͧ繷صآѻ ѧ ǹҪµ਴ࢵ਴оطͧçصآѻ շѡҪзçʴôҹԪͧͧ ԡ

ç͸ɰҹ¶Ҵ

ʶٻ ͹ó¶ҴػʷйҧتҴҶ¡͹ͧѺ˭ҡШҡʵо ѭҴҹȵѹ͡ ;ͧ¢ػ çʹҴç͸ɰҹ ҡҾҨѡؾ͹ص⾸ԭҳ Ҵͧ·ǹʹӴԴ ҡҶҴ·ǹʹлҳ ͡Шŧҹչ鹷ѹ

ҹҧتҴ

ԹҹҧتҴ

觵ѹͧ͡ѭ ҡâش鹢ͧҧҳ龺ʶٻѡɳ͹ҡѴҳ ѹɰҹҾйҧتҴҤѴ ѹѡҳشҡѡɳ繰ҹǧ¡Ѻʶٻª鹫ѧ Ѩغѹ¡ҹ “ҹҧتҴ”

ͪŹø

оطͧçصآѻ ʹ ѹеͺѭҾء ҵ

ͧ ͧ

.ҡʻ .աʻ .ҡʻ ͧͺӾԸպ٪պҡ㹢й ҹ١ͧҹѹ繨ӹǹ , Ǫ㹾طʹظоطͧ

Ӵ

ҧҡطһҳ ١ն ͡ѹ繷ѡźͧоطͧ좳зк筷ءá  

Ѻ˭ҡШҡʵо

зѧʴ稢ѭҽ觷ҧҹȵѹ͡ ѧ鹾⾸ ¾ʵзç˭ҡҶ¨ӹǹ ͻҴзѺ觺á͹

          ͹Т͡Ƕ֧ѵԢͧ鹾⾸ 鹾ѧࢻҹҹͧҾҧ١ͧоԨóҵ 

鹾⾸鹷

          ͹ͧлзѺ ⤹鹾⾸캹Ǫʹ ͧç͸ɰҹ“֧ʹͨʹ ѧ§˹ѧ Сд١ ҡҾѧ繾ط ҾҨѡء͡ҡѧѹҴ” ҶҺ繤͸ɰҹӤѭش;⾸ԭҳͧͧ ¡աҧ˹ “Ҷྪ” പФسҸԺ ʹյ͸ԺʧѴҸҵ ҹ Ǫʹ[5] ¶֧ ʶҹ觢ͧҺྪ” çչӾзѹҡؤšСз§ҧͧ

          ҹѡѹ͹Ң ͧç⾸ԭҳ繾طҵ͹Ѩ (ҧ) ǧ觵鹾⾸ Ѻ繵ҵ鹾⾸ (ѵġ) ֧դѹͧ¾оطͧµç ͧҡ繵ͧоط طѷ֧¡ѵġ 鹾⾸Һҷءѹ

          ѧطԹԾҹҳ յ鹾⾸ѧժԵ 繪ǧȡҪѧѷ㹾оطʹҧç ء駾ͧʴһԺѵԸԭԵǹҷ鹾⾸繻Ш᷺Ҵǧ ¤駷ͧçзѺҧ 觹 ˵عͧͧ ͧȡҪ  çй “ع” çԨҵ鹾⾸ ֧ҧغ “” 任ԺѵѺȡ ҧԴ СҾ⤹鹢ͧ⾸ ҧءѹз觵鹾⾸ŧе㹷ش ػǵ鹾⾸áж١çԨ

⾸鹷

          ;ȡҪçҺԧҵ鹾⾸ⴹҾ ͧçҾз¶١ͧҵ鹾⾸ⴹҾحҸԡС  ֧ͧç͸ɰҹա˹ ҪԾùӹӹҡǹӹǹ ,  ô⤹繻Шӷءѹ ҹѡ˹͵鹾⾸͡ա ͧç;зҧ һҳ ..- ѵй “ҧ” ʹԹ ວ ҷµ鹾⾸ çԨա蹡ѹ 鹷 عҹ֧ -

⾸鹷

          зԨ آͧҵ ١ؾѴŧ  еͧ áе鹷 ׹ҹҡش عҹҶ֧ .. ҳ -  

  ⾸鹷

          ѧ׹֧Ѩغѹ ·Թµͧ鹢ͧѧ ҹ 硫ҹ ѹ ѡҳժѧ ԹҧǨطʶҹᷧͧожѧӨ맫ѹ֡ ʶҹ羺§˹;⾸ӹǹ ˹ ֧˹;⾸͡ ӹǹ á٧ҳ 鹷ͧ٧ҳ ҹѹ ֧¡͡ҡѹ˹ͷ٧ ǹ鹻١ ˹ͷ٧ ǻ١ҧ˹ͧ价ҧѹ͡硹 СԭԺⵧ֧͡ѨغѹѺ (..)  繷Դѷһҷ觹ѡ

. ҳ : ùҶʶҹʴȹҤá

ҳ

          ͧҳչͧӤżҹԴͧʹ Ƿҡ  Ӥӷ褧ѡԷͧôʹԡԹЪԹҧ鹾 ԵԴ¨еͧǢͧѺ¹ʹ ੾ҧ觵͹ԹҧҧѹǨҧ觷еͧѹԭҳҷӤͷӡìһԨ ӤҴ¤ͷҴǧԭҳͧ¨ѡǧäͧ෾ѡվҹй觴ǧԭҳآ¨ҡš 仨صǧä 

          繷͹ҶȾ١ӡҷӤԴᴹä еçͧҳչԹͧͧ෾ (Lord Shiva) ͡ҡԸաͧ͡ ͡˹ͨҡȾաҡ ҺӪҧһ·仴¾褧 Ф׹ӤҨաú٪ ٪Ҿ褧 繻ШҴФ׹ ੾з “” վԸաͧǡ  ੾ҧ觨վԸա٪Ҥ˭Шӻ͹ 繾ԸҺºһ˭ش ռ餹ҺӨӹǹʹҹ· 駹м¹仴Ƿⴹ´ ⴹº ٴ ҪԵʹҡح ੾Фҧ觺ҹ ǡҷҧ͡ Ẻҷ駺㹹仴¼餹 ੾оǡѺʹԹ٨Ҩҡء÷ȢͧԹ· ͡ҡѧվԸնǧȾի ҧ

          . ȾͧѡǪҸ (Sadhu)

          . Ⱦͧ

          . Ⱦͧʵշ·ͧ (ʹ١)

          . ȾªԵж١١Ѵ

          . Ⱦͧ˭ԧǾ

          㹤ҧʹԹ١ ԧء⪵Ԫǧҧ´Ѻ , ѧ㹻Ѩغѹ ѹȾ١з ҳѹӡ - Ⱦ ͻҳ , Ⱦͻ ͧ׹ԧء⪵Ԫǧ繵ʹ Թ仵Ҵ繵ѧö¹ öͶպ ҧǡạТзȾҹ鹡оҡѹ⡹ Ѩ ӹԹ (Hindi) ¤ ͧ͢ҹ繤ԧ” ¤ա“ ҹ繢ͧ͹Ѻء” §ͧʹҧҵҧ һʶҹӤ 

          ͡ҡͧҳѧͧ١Ҿҵ駩 “ͧشͧش” ѧ

ͧҡش

ͧվоطٻ§شš

ͧٻԧ§ش

繵ẺͧʹԹٷ׺ʹŻѲ ѹҹش

ͧժԹԹʶҹҡش 

ͧաҡҡش 

ͧվҷ෾ҡش 

ͧȡź٪ҡش

ͧռդسҾش

ͧѡԷشͤ

ͧͧ⾸ѵҡش੾ 

ùҶ¾طѧط

          Т͡͹ѺѧࢻǡѺùҶդǢͧӤѭҧáѺоطͧ ѧҡоطͧç繾ط 鹾⾸Ǿͧصآ ѻ ط ͧҸҵǨйȹѹѺ ШǺѺͧç֧֡ѭѤ »ùԺѵԾͧ좳зçԺѵԸҧءɯ (ҹá´Ըյҧ) ֧ѴԹз价ѭѤ ùҶ ͧҳ 

оطͧçʴ价ùҶ¾кҷ ҧоطʹҡҾͧ㹡ԹҧҡطҶ֧ùҶ ѹ֧֧ùҶ (ԻĤѹ) ʴҶ֧ ѭѤ ͧ繾оطͧ[6]֧Ъѹ “Ҿ⤴ԹҶ֧ҷ ѡӡûѹôԸա 駹” ;оطͧʴҶ֧ ʹѭҵҧ ҹ鹡Ѻ͹仨ҡǤԴͧ ҹ·ѹ ҡѹء鹵͹Ѻ ʹзѺҧ ѭѤоطͧҧӾٴҾ “ҹ繼ФǷҹеҧ” ͧçʵͺ “ѭѤ” ѭѤ;ͧ  ֧ͧա “ӾٴҧҹԹҾٴ Դ Ҩʴѧ” ѭѤԹ¤ش¨֧ѹҾѹ оط֧ͧçʴѡѻѵٵѧ ҹѡ ⡳ѭо ǧ繸¨Ѻ㨤

˹դԴ繸 觹鹷 դѺ繸

¾Эҳͧоطҷç·ѹ ⡳ѭظ繾ѹѴ繵 ¾ͧ “ѭ ǵ ⡳ѭ” “ ⡳ѭ˹” 繡ûСҾиͧ繢ͧԧ ͧ ûԺѵѺ  ѭ⡳ѭШ֧繾ʧͧá㹾оطʹ ѹͧѹѵ[7]ú ҧʹ 駾ط¡ʶҹ觹 “ԻĤѹ” ࢵͧ鹡 ʶҹ觹繷غѵԢ鹢ͧоطʹ оطҷçʴȹҷ 

㨤Ӥѭͧиѡáѻѵٵ

          оطʴȹҡѳá ¡ “ѡѻѵٵ” ôѭѤͷش ҧ  繷ҧѡǪͺþԵùẺҧ㹡ûоĵԻԺѵ

          .آԡҹ¤ ¶֧ûԺѵԷ͹ҹԺѵ͹Ǻҹ

          .ѵѵҹ¤ ¶֧÷ҹѺӺҡԸաõҧ

          .ѪһԻ ¶֧ûԺѵ١ͧоͤ ѹä Сùͧ

          áҧ鹷ء ҧ觾 ͧ黯Ժѵ㹢ͷ Сش ҧ¡ҧ (The Eightfold Path or Atthangika-Magga) 繢ͻԺѵԷش鹨ҡء駻ǧ ੾äͷ ҷԯ 繷١ͧ 㹷¶֧Ѩ С շء, ط, ø ä 繵

          ѧоطͧԹԾҹҡ ȵ աâش鹾طʶҹͧѺоطʹ ǧҶ֧¢ͧȡҪ ùҶ֧ٹҧ㹡оطʹҷ˭ա ҹؤ оطʹҡѺ÷ӹغاҡҡѵµʹ վʧӾ繨ӹǹҡѴ С¤¤ǷùҶ觹١ʹ դŧ 

          ؤͧ “ѷԧ” ʢͧ੷ԧ ѵͧҳ[8] դͧʴҧҹͧԭ ֧ӡͶ͹Ҫԡʶٻ§ŧ з͡͹԰ŧһҳ ɹ 龺պҷç˭ͺ(ͧ)Թ͹èؾкԡҵ ء 蹷ͧ ྪùŨԹ㹴 áзӢͧǡҨ١Դҡѡ Ҫѷԧ֧Ӿкԡҵ·ѧӤ ʶٻҪѷԧ͹ “Ҫԡʶٻ” ʶҹоطͧçʴ “͹ѵѡٵ” ѭѤԡ繾ѹ 

          ˵طùҶ¶֧ “ѹ԰شͧҵ (Mankind)”  㹺dzͧԻĤѹ ѡɳТͧͧʶٻ 繷çҵä ʹç Ѵͺҹҳ Ե ٧ҳ Ե  ժ¡ “ʶٻ” ¶֧ʶҹʴ֧ش ѡѻѵٵ ֧繸зǾطЪǵҧҵԵҧʹʹҧ ҧԴӡ¹͹ѡٵ· ੾ЪǷջûա֡Ҥ鹤ҡѹҧԧѧͧҡ繸зоطͧçʴáͧ Ҩ “ѡ” աǧѡ͹Ӥѭͧоطʹ·

ùҶ : 㹻Ѩغѹ 

          ѡҳժѧɹ “ѹ͡ ᤹” ӡǨdzùҶá ҳ .. ҷҹ “ ѹ” ӡâشҧ´աͻҳ .. ҹԴʶٻ龺Ҩ֡͹ҧоطʹҷʹ ŻѲѹгյ Ҿѡ§ 繵 Ѱѧ (·ѧɻͧԹ) ԰ Թ 仡ҧ֡ Ҥ ҹ͹ ҧ֡չŨ (ѨغѹԷѹʡĵ) оҹѹѹس ֡ʶҹöͧҳ йһеҡҧ ش  ҧҡҹ͹鹹Ӷ֧ ҡաâش鹺óѧóҨз觶֧Ѩغѹ

          ͧҡҳࢵdzͧùҶդҧ˭ҡ 㹹ҳѵطǢͧѺоطͧʧǡҡ 觨Т͹ʹ੾ʶҹӤѭҹ 繡֡Ҿѧࢻͧ鹡͹ ѧ仹

. Ťѹخ : دԢͧоطͧҧ

. Ҫԡʶٻ : ʶҹ纾кԡҵآͧоط (ʴ͹ѵѡٵ)

. ҾȡҪ : ҧѭѡɳʶҹ觹繷Ӥѭͧоطʹ (١ѡ͡ ͹ ҷٻԧ ǹⴹ ж١㹾ԾԸѳùҶ Ҷ١繵ѭѡɳͧԹ)

.ʶٻ : ͧͧȡҪçҧ繾ط٪

. ٻǧ : ҧ

. ѡêԹ : йҧҧ

. ʶҹСźص͡Ǫ: “˹ Ѵͧ˹” 繤ӾٴͧҹЫ繺صâͧҧتҴҷ¢ػҪԷѵС͹е繾ط ҷҹС͡Ǫ繾ѹ

          ѧҳʶҹա觷鹾 繪ͧ ŢӡѺ ʹ㹷§йʶҹ蹪Ѵҹ ùҶ觹ѧվоطٻҧȹա 繾оطٻ§شš Ѩغѹ㹾ԾԸѳùҶ öҪ ҧҳբͧԹѧҧԻĤѹ ǹҧ (ͧ) ҧҹȵѹͧͧ͡ʶٻ ͹óʶҹǹ觹ѧ

 . ػ

          ;оطʹҶ١仨ҡԹ ʶҹ (ط) ʶҹСȸá (ùҶ) ҹ˵ءóѹ շ駤ԭФ ѧ 繡ѹ ֧ʹ੾лѵԤʶҹӤѭͧ觹ҹ ͷҤʧѹԴŧҧ ҡաèѡдµǷҹͧ Թҧ仡Һú 觨ѧѷԴҹҹ աдѺ

. ͡ҧԧ

س-ͧ . õԷ(駷 ѺѺا), ا෾: ͹ǡþ, 2547

ع. ѧӨ ˵ءóԹҧԹᴹѹͧҪǧѧ (駷 ), ا෾ : ӹѡԪ,

ҧ (ʶþ ó), ᴹط, ا෾: , 2546

ͧ  ǧ,... ѪԹ. ا෾ : ӹѡ¹, .

Ԯ (.. ص),. ԡح-֡, ا෾: ѷ˸ԡ ӡѴ,

  Ԫ (ࡵؾ), . Թ:طʶҹ鹸ѷ. ا෾: ѷ ӹѡ ӡѴ, .

________________________________. ͧط ҷ. ا෾: ӹѡԧ ͹, .

Թ Թ, طҷ͹ԹԾҹ, ا෾, ѷŻèѳСþ ӡѴ: ا෾,

ʶ ѹѧ, ʵҨ. طʶҹ㹪ٷջ, ا෾: ҨŧóҪԷ,

ع ѧ,. ѪԹ, ا෾: ѷԸþ ӡѴ,

ǧԨԵҷ,ŵ. ͧԹ. ا෾: ҧä,



[1] ääͧ С .ҷԯ: ѹ١ͧ .ѧѻ: Դѹ١ͧ .Ҩ: þٴѨ .ҡѹ: СͺçҹبԵ .Ҫ: §վ㹷ҧ١ͧ .: þ㹷ҧͺ .ʵ: ֡ͺ .Ҹ : õ㨻ԺѵԷ١ͧͧͧ

[2] ١Ǣͧժʹѧ ҧѳ, ҧҤ йҧô

[3] ҵáçػؾྐྵҹʵԭҳ (ʹյҵԡš͹)  зͧçبصٻҵҳ (ԴôѺͧѵ) зçѡ­ҳ (˵Сʤͧͧѡ㹨Եѹҹ)

[4] վطѡҪ Сͧ਴ͧиҹѵ (ح ڵطڸ) ʹյѴ¾ط ˹Ҿиٵ»Թ (¹) 㹹¾طóЪ鹺ͧ਴ (ҧͧ) ҧᾧͺͧ਴֧鹾⾸ ҧеٷҧŻẺȡҪ ӹǹ   աѧԴʧѹҧͧ਴Һҷءѹ 

[5] ҾȡҪçҧǪʹͧ¹Թҷ᷹˭ҡ  ѡ鹷зѺྪ ͧҹٻҹ˧  ¤ѵº͹оطͧç鹨ҡСʷ駻ǧԴǧšԹդ ҳ . ҧҳ .   ˹ .

[6] çѭѤ ͧ繾оطͧ ¡ “Ҥѳʶٻ” ٧ҳ Ե ǹ繻ͧٻ (ҹ繢ͧ ѤҪҧ;.. ͹óԴҹ “ع” ʴ˹բ֡Ѻʧ) ҤѳʶٻҧͧҾлѭѤ оطͧ 觹

[7] ѵ;ѵ Сͺ .оط  .и .ʧ

[8] “Ҿѵ” Ѩغѹͧҳ ѵӹҨŧ Ҫͧش¤ “ٵ ³ ԧ”


ҹԴ

Դ繷 1 (0)
wullopp ѹ : 30/09/2019 : 08.10 .
http://oknation.nationtv.tv/blog/health2you

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