Good governance of Local Administrative Organizations Administration in Thailand
Dr.Pattita Toomkerd ภัทร์ฐิตา ทุมเกิด
Founder and Managing Director Roys Service Co.,Ltd. (HQ)
Special Lecturer, Office of General Education Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand
Abstract Problems Good governance of Thailand in accordance with the national development and reform strategy framework. Which is connected with the department of local administration's promotion is to strengthen the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the country to ensure stability, sustainability and development of local strength. In accordance with the pattern of democratic governance in the area to be continuously strong To be a local government that is completely democratic as well as giving importance to promoting and developing youth readiness Local people In getting involved in the process democracy of local government organizations make the local government organization a democratic learning source for the people To lead to the development of democracy that the local people and society at large, both at the international level and accept the democracy in Thailand, as well as the problems and challenges of development according to the country's strategy during the transition.
Keywords: Good governance. Local Administrative Organizations Administration Thailand
The heart of local administration before the local laws and the Plan Act and the decentralization process took place in the year 2000, it was initially discussed that Emerging local problems throughout the country. There are 3 main points to think about. 1. Body of Knowledge because there are many regulations, laws, and operating procedures for creating knowledge and understanding. And that has changed whether it is finance, budgeting, human resource management, environment, quality of life development. 2. People Participation because it is an important step to ensure that Self Government (Self Government). If lack of participation, the democratic process. 3. Good governance, how to make the administration morally transparent and adhering to the rules and is worthwhile bring benefits to local people at the same time throughout the country.
Local government occurred in Thailand for a long time is a centralized authorization To allow local people to participate in self-government according to the spirit of government Democratic whether it is a matter of participating in the proposed problems, making decisions, inspecting the work and receiving public services, however, even if local government is free In operation But still under the supervision of the central government. Day by day the role will increase. Due to the transfer of more missions to local government organizations. Therefore, decentralization to local areas according to the principle of decentralization (Decentralization) to the public directly so that people have The power to make decisions about various local public affairs by oneself in accordance with the duties and responsibilities which are clearly stated Have clear responsibility areas There are executives who have received Elected directly by citizens or may be approved by the local council.
Good governance: Good governance is abbreviated as GG. The government is called Business management Good country, the private sector is called the Good Corporate Governance. Beginning in the year 1989, based on a study of a group of scholars and researchers of the United Nations Compare developing countries with developed countries to study that developing countries How to adjust the management system to keep up with the changes in the modern society world to follow the developed countries. The use of words such as Dharma, government, governance, and government are mentioned. The term good governance is a new body of knowledge. In the subjects of public administration and business, society, environment, investment. In this regard, the modern administration program, studying good governance in various forms, is integrated into supplement work. Education lots
Type of local government organization
According to the principle of decentralization of government (Decentralization) is a governing body in which states or central authorities delegate duties to provide certain public services. In the past, the central administration was the local operator, so the locals undertook the operation with the budget and local officials. By the central administration government, only overseeing did not go in command which, for the local government organization in Thailand It is well known and understood that it can be categorized into 2 types, which are general administrative organizations. Consisting of Provincial Administration Organization (Provincial Administrative Organization), Municipality and Subdistrict Administrative Organization (SAO) and special administrative organization is Bangkok and Pattaya city.
(1) General Local Administrative Organization
The general form of local government organization is the local government organization that is established there are similar characteristics or components throughout the country. However, there are many general types of local administrative organizations. For example, there are 3 types of local administrative organizations in Thailand which are provincial administrative organizations, municipalities (Nakhon Ratchasima). / City / Sub-district) and the Subdistrict Administration Organization In which each category will have the same characteristics or composition as the whole country, which will be the law to establish methods Management styles, powers, duties and methods of public service provision. Personnel management Finance and budgets are uniform throughout the country.
(2) Special local government organization
A special type of local government organization is a local government organization that has certain characteristics or elements that are different from general local government organizations. This difference is due to the characteristics of the local area itself, such as the locality that has prosperity very economical Is a densely populated area Or being a locality that is a famous tourist destination with a large number of tourists, for example, because of the unique characteristics of the local area, making the use of management styles like local administrative organizations in general is inappropriate Unable to respond to the needs of local people effectively Therefore, special forms of local government organizations must be considered in order to meet these needs.
At present, there are 2 systems of local government administration: 1) general systems used for There are 3 general types of local areas: municipality, sub-district administration organization (SAO) and provincial administrative organization (2 sub-district administration organizations). 2) Special systems used in some localities are in 2 forms, namely Bangkok. And Pattaya Therefore it is a challenge for local administrators in the benefit of local government. Maximum per locality that they care for responsibility.
Local administrators are people who act as management in the local government organization. Usually, the administrators of the local government organization come in two ways: directly electing local administrators. And indirect local election elections the local administrators are named according to the local administrative organizations, such as the President of the Provincial Administrative Organization, the Mayor, the President of the Subdistrict Administrative Organization, the Governor of Bangkok Pattaya City Mayor Which has a 4-year term of office. Able to appoint a vice Prime Minister Secretary and Advisor to the Prime Minister to help with work.
To enter the position of local administrator previously, the law relating to administrative organizations each type of local government has determined the method of entering the position of the local administrative organization. Both direct and indirect methods of entry But now the law requires local administrators Must be directly elected by the public only one way As for the qualifications of the local administrators Candidates for election as local administrators must have qualifications and have no prohibited characteristics under the Act. Elections for members of local councils or local administrators in 2019, and according to local administrative organization laws, such as the Provincial Administration Organization Act B.E. 2540 and amended Municipal Act B.E. 2496 and amended Tambon Administrative Organization Act 2537 and amended Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act B.E. 2528 and its amendments and the Pattaya Administrative Regulations Act 1999 and amended, such as all types of local administrators must be aged thirty-five years up to the election day Graduation Not lower than Bachelor's degree or equivalent Except the president of the sub-district administration organization Scheduled to graduate Not lower than high school or equivalent. In addition, people who have previously been members of the organization Provincial Administration Local administrators or members of parliament able to run for election as president of the organization Provincial Administration or if used to be a member of the local assembly Local administrators or members of parliament Can run for election as mayor or if used to be a member of the district council Local councilor Local administrators or members of parliament able to run for election as the president of the sub-district administration organization.
Problems and challenges of Thailand in accordance with the national development and reform strategy framework which is connected with the department of local administration's promotion is to strengthen the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the country to ensure stability, sustainability and development of local strength. In accordance with the pattern of democratic governance in the area to be continuously strong to be a local government that is completely democratic As well as giving importance to promoting and developing youth readiness Local people In getting involved in the process democracy of local government organizations make the local government organization a democratic learning source for the people To lead to the development of democracy that the local people and society at large, both at the international level and accept the democracy in Thailand, as well as the problems and challenges of development according to the country's strategy during the transition. To context another promotion of local government is strengthening the capacity of local self-reliance and being an important spatial mechanism for guiding the development of the area and improving the quality of life of the people. Join to create stable, sustainable prosperity for the area under local responsibility. By focusing on the connection of philosophy from the sufficiency economy to the development of management and public services in accordance with the local mission context, and the most important thing is to maintain learning in the philosophy of sufficiency economy and the ways of promoting local government in Thailand in every mission.
Thai local government organizations (LAO) have been increasing in importance after decentralization in 1999 by various localities, including municipality, sub-district administration organization (SAO), provincial administrative organization (Provincial Administrative Organization) Bangkok and Pattaya City have a mission to provide public services to meet the needs of people in their own responsibility area. Currently, Thailand has a total of 7,853 LAOs, with LAO accounting for approximately 25% of the net government revenue and the proportion of expenditure is approximately 17 percent of government expenditure, which the size of the LAO tends to continue to grow Therefore, the local government's fiscal status would have a significant impact on the government's financial status. And public sector finance as a whole.
If looking at the challenges of Local Administrative Organization (LAO) management, there are 2 points to watch out for: (1) collecting more complete local financial information and (2) the challenges from Local Administrative Organization (LAO) management both in terms of revenue-expenditure, fiscal balance and debt formation.
The issue of that information must accept that the local fiscal information is not very complete which at present can gather less than half of the local fiscal data this shortage of information makes it impossible to assess the true state of local finance. And resulting in the discrepancy in the analysis and planning of the overall fiscal sector Data problems are the main cause. Come from the data collection process because there are a lot of LAOs, some places do not cooperate with the data transfer or delay the data transmission Restrictions on computer equipment or high speed internet access to the database and staff lacking knowledge and understanding.
Challenging issues from the local administrative organization, the revenue from the Bill decides the plan and the decentralization process, requiring the government to allocate funds to the local administrative organization so that the income proportion is not small. Over 25 percent of government revenue at present, Local Administrative Organization (LAO) relies on the main income from the tax that the state has allocated. And subsidies are important, while local revenue is only 10% of the local government's revenue. From the income structure, the government will have a long-term financial burden and also resulting in the Local Administrative Organization (LAO) lacking of financial independence and unable to fully develop localities Which is not in accordance with the principle of fiscal decentralization which focuses on Local Administrative Organization (LAO) being self-reliant while in terms of expenditure, although the overall trend is increasing continuously, if the local authority still does not have the ability to find income by itself To cover expenses The state may have to increase subsidies Which will become a fiscal burden in the future.
If looking at the fiscal balance of the local authorities tend to be balanced or always balance. In terms of stability, it may seem strong, but in reality, Local Administrative Organization (LAO's) main income comes from government allocations. Therefore, if the government still has a continuous deficit and creates more public debt such situations may cause inefficiency and ultimately create financial risk.
Regarding the creation of Local Administrative Organization (LAO) debt, according to the law LAO's debt creation can be done in many forms (except SAO but still unable to borrow) such as (1) Direct domestic borrowing from banks Financial institution And borrowing from local savings fund, such as the Municipal Business Promotion Fund (CAT) and the fund of the Provincial Administrative Organization (2) Foreign borrowing (3) borrowing by issuing bonds or borrowing directly from the public and (4) requesting foreign assistance. The Ministry of Interior is authorized to approve LAO's loans.
To summarize, the local administrative challenge comes from both the limitation of data And local administration There are several administrative approaches to reduce such limitations, such as (1) developing more extensive data storage (2) increasing the efficiency of revenue collected by the local government, both by expanding the tax base and considering Collecting new taxes. (3) Expediting the transfer of the mission to LAO so as not to be a budget burden and allow for efficient spending. (4) Increase efficiency and transparency in management. By promoting the dissemination of information So that people can access and able to monitor the operation In order to carry out various missions In line with the needs of the people and truly achieve the goal of decentralization.
Decentralization and autonomy are important democratic principles. True decentralization is decentralization to the people or public participation. The nation can be strengthened by the people, not by the bureaucratic system. However, for the people to be able to accept various powers and duties and budgets, there must be political institutions and administration to support, which is the local administrative organization.
At present, the local government is an organization that is well-equipped with the number of personnel and budget, with a total of 7,852 locations covering all areas of the country. There are a total of around 500,000 people and a budget of around seven hundred billion baht. However, the local government does not receive the trust of the government or the central area as it should be. Local both elected personnel and permanent civil servants must turn back and consider that how to develop and improve yourself In order to enhance the capability and create a good image.
The current constitution places emphasis on national strategy or national goals. Long term clear including the reform issues that are good and undeniable, such as government, modern, excellent service, etc. Therefore from now on, any government, regardless of the set, must establish a vision and take action. Under the national strategy and reform issues.
The local government can participate in driving the national strategy in all 6 aspects, such as
1) Security strategy Local authorities can also help to maintain order. Tree cutting and lighting in the community etc.
2) Strategies for creating competitiveness Local authorities can help Convenience for private companies that want to set up factories or offices in the community. Which results in employment in the community etc.
3) Strategy for human development and capacity building Local authorities can take care of small child centers. And support the development of children or get involved in educational support in schools etc.
4) Strategies for creating opportunities for equality and social equality, local people can go in to care, without disparities in the lives of children and the elderly etc.
5) Strategies for creating growth on a quality of life that is friendly to the local environment has a very clear role in creating green areas and waste disposal in the community, etc.
6) Strategies for balancing and developing the local government management system must rely on the people as the center. Faster Cheaper Easier is linked together and must be able to work under human resources and budget. Including using modern technology for work etc.
We believe that local personnel are ready to take part in driving the national strategy. Country reform and the reconciliation of reconciliation can occur in concrete. Finally, central and regional management will have to look at the new local. Current local Have higher capacity and are ready to work with the central and regional areas. In addition, the local area must reduce Power down ideas and continue to work as descendants of the villagers.
With vision Mission and strategy for local development Local government organizations must perform SWOT Analysis of the organization by brainstorming ideas from personnel in the organization. In order for the personnel in the organization to have a working direction that is aimed at the same goal By analyzing the problems and obstacles that occur and suggesting solutions for joint problems Taking into account the geography History, environment, and culture in defining vision, mission, and strategy. In addition, it must also consider the strategy and goals of the operation of the province. So that the operations of the local administrative organization are in the same direction and in accordance with the development plan at a higher level.
Knowledge creation understanding and transfer of experience to personnel in the organization the executive of the organization, both political and permanent civil servants, must have knowledge and skills. In which the management has applied the fundamentals of business knowledge and experience to apply to the organization management Including the idea of decentralization of local government which is independent, aimed to serve the people to transfer knowledge and views to personnel in the organization So that everyone has the knowledge and perspective to operate open and in the same direction Which is to increase work potential for personnel.
Promoting collaboration there is an integrated work promotion. By working together between divisions / divisions Or promote teamwork Shared resources In order to achieve maximum work efficiency, for example in taxation, the Treasury Division must coordinate with the Community Development Helper, the Quality of Life in the Office of Tax Collection Or coordinate with the District Coordination Center staff to collect taxes. There is also a need to work together between politicians, civil servants and citizens, and work as a team from departments within the local government organization to increase work potential.
Promoting collaboration there is an integrated work promotion by working together between divisions / divisions Or promote teamwork Shared resources In order to achieve maximum work efficiency, for example in taxation, the Treasury Division must coordinate with the Community Development Helper, the Quality of Life in the Office of Tax Collection Or coordinate with the District Coordination Center staff to collect taxes. There is also a need to work together between politicians, civil servants and citizens, and work as a team from departments within the local government organization to increase work potential.
The personnel in the organization are knowledgeable, capable and responsible. Must encourage personnel in the organization to receive further education and education at a higher level. Enable the personnel to apply the knowledge gained to improve work efficiency In addition, personnel at the operational level must have knowledge. With enthusiasm for work High responsibility and dedication to working to achieve organizational goals including personnel must also have the flexibility to accept changes have learning and sharing experiences together.
Management with agility promote the organization to have a flexible administration. By assigning responsibilities to shorten the process the management will determine the policy or direction of work. While the operators have to put plans and policies into action to achieve organizational goals If the operators have problems in working, they will work together to solve problems between the management and the workers. There are regular meetings between management and operators.
Listening to external opinions in the development of the work of the local government organization must be open to external opinions, including people with specific expertise. To assist in enhancing the knowledge and capability of the personnel within the organization and suggesting operational and project guidance, such as setting up an advisory council As well as accepting opinions from the public sector So that the local administrative organization can manage and propose the project to meet the needs of the people In order to make the people most satisfied In addition, it is a collaboration between local government organizations and external parties such as the establishment of a local leadership development institution. With speakers and experts to give knowledge and cooperation in the project implementation Including good studies and successful project visits to apply to their organization.
Local administrative organizations and public administration for the benefit of the people
In order to reduce gaps and tighten local administration to be transparent, without grievances, and monitored by internal systems need management mechanisms to meet the good management fundamentally can be done easily and continuously such as
1. Local Administrative Organization There should be regulations of government information so that people know that will there be any information that the public will be able to request to view or inspect, such as annual budget information, procurement information.
2. Local administrative organizations? Must establish a code of ethic and conduct, and must support mechanisms to ensure compliance with the code of ethics, because at present independent organizations are Office of the Ombudsman Office of the Auditor General of Thailand (Office of Pubilc Sector Anti-Corruption Commission(PACC,)The National Anti-Corruption Commission (NCC) and other regulatory agencies will inspect, monitor and supervise all departments, including local government organizations, to comply with the prescribed ethics. Break or committing an offense, will be punished in the current case of civil servants Government employees are guilty of disciplinary action. For political officials, if violating or committing an offense when the investigation finds that the fraud is wrong, it will report to Office of the National Counter Corruption Commission (NACC) considers the process.
3. Local Administrative Organization Internal control plans should be developed to prevent the risk of administration, which is to organize the internal control in all departments of the local government organization. The best method Is the preparation of the operational manual of the local administrative organization in each matter that is an internal work Administration of local administrative organizations and their duties to provide services to the people And other agencies requesting approval from the manual, will explain in detail Procedure In order not to cause confusion And currently have The government's facilitation of the facilitation of the government's permission in 2015 is to be a duty At all government agencies Must provide a facilitation guide for people or visitors to the government, so local government organizations Which is a government agency And have a mission to provide services to people Prepare the said manual.
At present, local government is a backlash and an important mechanism for promoting and developing local democracy. And is a mechanism for providing public services at the local level And aside from that, the local government organization has to proceed to provide public services by focusing on the integration of work To achieve sustainability and true development of local people Local government organizations should pay attention to "Providing education to local people", which can be seen in both implications, namely, the promotion and support of education in the system. And the promotion and support of non-formal education this non-formal education will fill in the missing parts for different groups of people and add information local knowledge to local people such as arranging local museums which is the place to tell the story history and existence of past communities providing a mobile library or local community radio programs, etc. Education that is linked to the culture, customs and local wisdom, these will play an important role in creating pride for local people and creating ownership. And create citizens with political awareness and finally, will result in citizens participating in politics at both the local and national levels.
Local government organizations have an increasing role and importance in the area development. Managing public services for citizens it is also an important mechanism of democratic development that is fundamental and since the trend of decentralization to the locality in the year 2540 onwards, the local government organization has adapted and developed all the time. However, the work of the local government organization still faces many problems and obstacles. In addition, the new context of the country and the global situation have become a new threat and challenge for the leaders of the local government. Whether it is a matter of climate change, disaster, ASEAN Economic Community. Information technology including political conflicts which these issues have an impact on the people, both directly and indirectly under these contexts leaders and personnel of local government organizations need to develop a new paradigm in their work. To enter the world of Digital economy based on local development in the form of Digital & Innovation for Green Society according to the international mainstream in the Thai context Along with adjusting the thinking system to keep up with the development in the digital economy era, which is the heart to develop into a digital society according to international standards, which is the visionary vision of development for a sustainable society.
Local government is established on the basis of decentralization and democratic ideology which provides opportunities and encourages citizens to take an active role and participate in political processes and self-government activities From the important characteristics of local government and the components of local government which focuses on the autonomy of the local people have an election There are organizations or institutions that are needed to govern themselves. And most importantly, providing an opportunity for local people to participate extensively in their own government make operations in various fields of the local government organization is to meet the needs of the local people In addition, the Ministry of Interior and local administrative organizations have guidelines for applying good governance principles in local administrative organizations in a concrete manner so that the administration and operations of the local government organizations respond to the needs and Truly benefit the people from the articles paper, it was found that The people's opinions on the implementation of the good governance , have an average level at a high level. Therefore, the municipalities and Sub-district Administration Organization should maintain this high standard. In this regard, the municipality should be aware and attach importance to the use of good governance principles for administration and operations seriously in order to promote efficiency in the administration according to the good governance principles thoroughly which will benefit more people.
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