Business Ethic and Readiness in the 4G Economic
Dr.Pattita Toomkerd ภัทร์ฐิตา ทุมเกิด
Founder and Managing Director Roys Service Co.,Ltd. (HQ) Special Lecturer, Office of General Education
Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand Email: email@example.com
Business readiness Caused by factors which are Changes in technology and economic innovation result in a variety of business practices. There are new styles. There are no restrictions on the area and location of the workplace, such as the past, having knowledge and creativity. As there are many ways to make quick business decisions that can affect growth, equally successful and failed. The company's ethical adaptation of business operations and corporate governance, the 4G era, is a very important business world and considered as a tool to control important business operations because of laws, regulations, and morals in conducting business. That is a covenant that must be strictly observed to each other in doing business or trading together, giving each other the opportunity to participate, responsible, transparent and worthwhile It is an important part of adjusting the thinking base of doing business to achieve as much honesty as possible. Because this world, 4G economic, there is nothing that can be hidden anymore.
Keyword: readiness, business ethics, corporate governance, 4G era.
It’s already known that nowadays, business operations are becoming more complicated and complicated. In this case, it must be said that it is very difficult for people who are not interested in information technology. But turns out to be easy for those who are ready Which is ready in the plane of having the mind to learn these technological and technological progress and this is one of the many reasons that everyone in the business community must consider why they are also considered because there are reasons to consider. Economic environment on technological change Regarding the political environment Subject to regulatory changes Regarding the legal environment and the changing of population characteristics, the economic environment Since the world entered the 21st century into the world of maximum speed That comes with innovative technology and virtual computer engineering.
Good Governance is a code of conduct for correctness, fairness, and transparency in performing duties used in the administration, management, and supervision of various businesses to be in line with the principles of good governance and management with 10 items as follows: 1. Principle of Effectiveness is the result of government performance that achieves objectives and the goals of the government action plan as budgeted are to be implemented and can be compared with government agencies or departments with similar missions and have performance results in The country's leading level for the benefit of the people by performing their duties Must have a clear strategic direction and objectives, operational procedures and Standardized work system, including continuous monitoring, evaluation, and systematic improvement. 2.Efficiency means government administration in accordance with good governance guidelines that have Designing work processes using management techniques and tools that Suitable for the organization to be able to use resources in terms of costs Labor and duration The maximum benefit for the development of the capacity to perform official duties in order to Meet the needs of the people and all groups of stakeholders 3. Principle of responsiveness is the service that can be operated within Time limit and build trust, trust, and fulfill expectations or the needs of the service recipients and diverse stakeholders and there are differences 4. Principles of responsibility is the responsibility of the performance and contributions to the goals set the responsibility should be at the level that responds to public expectations Including showing the happiness awareness of responsibility for public issues. 5. Principles of transparency is a straightforward process that can be clarified when in doubt and can access information that is prohibited by law freely The people can know every step of the activities or processes and can check. 6. Principles of participation is a process that civil servants People and stakeholders All groups of stakeholders have the opportunity to participate in awareness, learning, understanding, sharing views Jointly propose important problems that are related Co-Think Join to solve the problem. Participate in the decision making process and join the development process as a development partner. 7. principles of Decentralization is the transfer of decision-making power, resources and missions from the central government to administrative units, whether government agencies. Local administration and the people's sector to act on their behalf as appropriate, including Deliver authority and responsibility for decision-making and operations to personnel, with an emphasis on providing service satisfaction to service recipients and stakeholders. Process improvement and increase productivity for good performance of government agencies. 8. Rule of law is the use of the power of law. Regulations for Government administration with fairness Not discriminating against and considering the rights and liberties of the interested parties. 9. principles of Equity are treated and treated equally. Without separating from male or female origin, race, language, gender, age, disability Physical condition or health Status of person Socioeconomic status, religious beliefs, education, training, etc. 10. Consensus oriented means finding general agreement within the group of stakeholders. Relevant interests which is an agreement resulting from the use of a process for finding opinions from groups of people who have received benefits and lost benefits Especially the groups that are affected Directly, which must not have irresistible objections on important issues The consensus does not have to mean that it is a consensus which modern entrepreneurs must pay attention to these things Because good governance greatly contributes to the direction and goals of companies that want to become good governance companies.
2. Social adjustment and Business Ethics
In a world society full of economic warriors, it can be seen that the business conditions of trade Marketing will spread internationally and internationally, and there will be more cooperation between various business organizations. Companies tend to expand their businesses to different countries. Both in the form of opening a branch company and sending the products of their company as products Therefore, all companies need to learn how to conduct marketing and business. In the country that they work with more than before Including paying attention to the ethical issues that may arise at a particular company or industry Must face from the external environment about technological changes Entering the information age Causing the business operations and operations of various companies to rely on telecommunications systems And more internet, resulting in the changing business model By doing business through a network of computers, companies are becoming workplaces where employees can work anywhere. Contacting customers and other employees of the company will be through various communication devices, issues, privacy issues and the behavior of companies that monitor employee behavior (savellance) may be a problem in the workplace regarding the political environment. The fall of communism along with the emergence of capitalism. With various forms causing the business system to change too. Therefore, understanding different cultures and way of life and the pattern of business offshore in different countries is a matter that professional business people need to pay attention.
However, the issue of regulatory change government agencies' practices, for example, the Food and Drug Administration of many countries must consider and approve new drugs. More thoroughly in the event that the patient is primarily life-threatening from consuming certain drugs or in the case of the discovery that there are many drugs, such as flu relief drugs, there are compounds that are harmful to the body.
3.Running business with society that adheres to good governance
While conducting business still faces legal difficulties both at home and abroad. In a world without borders will see that the legal environment The issue that is still a problem is the law regarding the obligations that the company has on users of goods and services. in the event of damage or danger from the use of the product and service (product liability law). The problem is the responsibility of the business to customers. How comprehensive should it be and the demographic change? The labor force working in various organizations and companies is more diverse. In terms of gender, age, education, race, religion, name, culture, and various traditions. Therefore, the consequences that may occur in the organization such as the problem of sexual harassment, the problem of discrimination. In addition, the result organization downsizing may cause problems Morale for employees who are not laid off and who are still working with the company, etc., from business ethics to governance. Business ethics is an art that has applied ethical principles to examine and solve business problems. Ethics will answer what is right and wrong in business. Guidelines for solving business problems There may not be only one choice or a suitable solution and sometimes without appropriate guidelines(Weiss,1998, 7).
Although there is no definition of best business ethics but what academics have in common is that business ethics are a matter of reasoning Decisions based on principles and beliefs in judging business problems that rely on an equilibrium of personal economic benefits Laura Nash (1990,5) states that business ethics refers to the study of how to apply personal moral principles for business activities and business goals. It studies how the business environment determines the specific problems of a business. Examples of behavior that is a problem of business ethics, such as bribery behavior Company Theft Dismissing employees who reveal bad behavior of the Company to public (Whiste blowing) disclosure of confidential business information of the company to competitors. End of employment contract without notice. Employees use company articles for personal work.
Business ethics Is not the story of an individual, individual or personal but involves covering many facets and levels business executives and investors must manage and relate to gardeners. (saketholders) many groups both within the organization and outside the organization understanding of different business stakeholder groups will help to see the overlapping relationships between different groups involved in business ethics issues.
Carroll (1993, pp.110-12) discussed looking at the issues of business ethics into 5 levels, as in the chart.
Sources:SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 43, no. 3, summer 1997, Society for Advancement of Management.
Kiatphong Udomthanatheera explained that the pyramid of CSR in Carroll's Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) means corporate social responsibility and Corporate Environment which is conducting business under good ethics and management. Carroll's CSR Pyramid is the corporate social responsibility concept of Carroll and Buchholz (1999) that corporate social responsibility will be accepted by business operators that Morally by accepting that the responsibility of the business organization will be the way that leads to social acceptance organizations must consider 4 aspects of corporate social responsibility by writing in the form of a Carroll's CSR responsibility pyramid (Carroll's CSR Pyramid). An important feature is that CSR must be built on a foundation of profitability. Which must also comply with the correct laws and regulations After that, businesses should consider their own charitable activities by adhering to ethical duties and responsibilities to society. Carroll's CSR Pyramid consists of 4 levels of responsibility which as the following
1.Economic responsibility. Thinking of profits always comes first. And considered necessary for the business Responsibilities of a business to make a profit Will help businesses stay alive and benefit society in the long run.
2.Legal responsibility (Legal) is responsible for complying with other laws and regulations. Which must emphasize on creating benefits, not having problems, with determination to live together in a good society, for example, hiring at a fair price There is fair market competition Maintain the health and safety of employees, customers, society and the environment.
3.Ethical responsibility This is a duty to follow. Moral and ethical principles with this responsibility, businesses should go beyond the narrow requirements of the law, for example. Retaining suppliers and employees.
4.Responsibility in public benefit (Philanthropic Responsibilities) are responsibilities that must be returned to society. Decisions such as Charity donation from the project staff.
Carroll's CSR Pyramid has the advantage of emphasizing the importance of profit comes first, which is the main factor in the survival of an organization or activity. This model is reasonable and easy to understand. Use plain text with clear images. More than one component can be chosen. Carroll's CSR Pyramid has disadvantages: Sometimes it is to focus on profits. May cause many parts to be reduced in importance Business organization that aims to grow sustainably should consider social responsibility in all 4 aspects to be as comprehensive as possible The organization cannot be responsible for a particular social responsibility in one aspects. Because organizations that think about all 4 aspects of responsibility will help contribute to society Therefore will be more accepted by society It is important to understand moral issues by dividing into different levels (as in the chart above) to Makes it possible to see the origin or point of issue Including the influence that comes from the group of people If there are ethical issues related to or limited within the scope of personal responsibility, then each person must check their internal motivation and ethical standards before making any decisions. Examples of this level of personal behavior include calling the company that they are ill, unable to work even if they are not ill. Bribes to comply with their own satisfaction, rather than to follow the rules of the enterprise level organization. Ethical problems at this level may arise when an individual or group of people forced to look at the immoral or illegal behavior of colleagues for the benefit of the company or one employee may be asked to commit illegal and immoral actions in order to allow the parties or the department to gain more profits When ethical problems arise at the organizational level Members of the organization should examine the policy. Company practices and principles before making any decisions. Association level ethical issues at this level Usually caused by a living, some living Often grouped into associations, such as accountants, lawyers, doctors or administrative and management consultants, often referring to their professional ethics. That will be the main controlling behavior in the work. Examples of behavioral problems that are ethical issues include advising customers to avoid taxes. Giving a side effect to the patient's health Suggesting companies to conduct illegal business.
Although business control measures at the social level, legal norms of society Traditions and ways of life will determine and control the behavior of people in society acceptable business activities in a country It may be illegal and immoral behavior in another country. For example, bribery behavior in middle Eastern countries Asia and some Mediterranean Countries Considered acceptable behavior but in Europe and America Is considered an international violent behavior. Ethics problems at this level are very difficult to make a decision because there is a mix of different cultures, politics, religions, values, and beliefs must consider specific matters taking into account the constitutional law and tradition.
Misconceptions about business ethics There are many opinions about business ethics. Some people are of the opinion that ethics and education are not necessary and not related to business operations, false beliefs Ethics are personal matters. It's not a matter of public interest and not something that can be debated. This first belief is based on the principle that Ethics are religious beliefs and it is a personal matter to decide what is right and what is wrong. Which is the consciousness of each Buddha There are famous scholars. There is an opinion supporting this notion: Milton Friedman (1970,33), a famous economist who views ethics as inappropriate for business, especially those that are applied seriously in business operations Because businessmen are not trained for the nation People often have to make choices in life that are related to morality, ethics, including work related to business. The conditions in which an individual must make decisions based on moral reasons are often influenced by discussions. Chat with other people Standard Idea Social group beliefs Because people are part of an organization that has norms, values, and practices that control what concepts and behaviors are acceptable or unacceptable.
Posner and Schmidt (1984) has surveyed companies in the United States found that 60 to 70 percent of managers at various levels in the United States reported that they felt pressured to surrender. Doing things that violate one's morals for the purpose of the company. Another survey by Carroll (1975) found that early management often have a lot of pressure If aware of unethical behavior.
From this survey report Reflecting the business culture and pressures of the organization that influence decisions Choices related to personal ethics This does not mean that personal ethics decisions are not important, but point out that business ethics is not just a story about a specific level, but a social, organizational, and international level cannot mix business with ethics. De Corge (1986) argues that business operations are fundamentally unrelated to morality. Because businesses operate in the free market (Free Market). This belief confirms that management is science, not religion and not ethical. Although this idea is widespread Heavily in the United States It was only during the early industrial age until it came before the Vietnam War in 1996, but this concept began to deteriorate about two decades ago. Business phenomena such as accepting bribes Bribery of unsafe products, spills of crude oil in the sea (01 Spills), release of toxic substances in the environment (Toxic Dumping), problems of air and water pollution.
These problems causing many doubts, including shaking the original basic belief that business operations are science and confidence in the market system. In fact, businesses are human activities, not science, so they can assess these activities in the moral, ethical, because if everyone in Businesses see that business is no longer about ethics. Business may fall easily company employees may steal goods and property of the employer. While the employer may fire the employee at any time as he wishes. Those who have contracted themselves can leave the contracts and agreements as they wish, so the chaos will spread. Important issues are The belief that business runs under the free market system (Free Market) is still an argument that can be argued. That is to say, the problem of inequality leads to a state of monopoly on trade power only a few companies occupy the market and from the reality world economic powers such as the United States, America, Japan, and European countries also have mixed economics that need to be based on laws. Government policies to solve non-artificial defects such as the minimum wage law.
4. Business Profits and Business Ethics
The belief that business ethics do not have a complete standard of self. This belief, or ethics, often changed in the 1950s. There is often corruption. In 1977, the United States enacted a law that bribes employees. Including corruption but in the countries of Arab countries, Asia, Africa and Latin America Business practices continue to pay bribes, so ethical behavior is difficult to assess or decide. Bringing ethical principles into science and art. Human reasoning is not perfect. Entrepreneurs with good intentions may make mistakes or make bad decisions. The faithful party may agree to lower the standard of goodness. Honesty down in exchange for increased profits for the company Ethical standards and principles are not always sufficient to resolve conflicts. There is no principle that can replace human judgment. Because the problem is complicated.
Nowadays entrepreneurs are faced with a new type of ethical problem, which is different from the past. Therefore, managers must maintain a balance between human life and economic factors in making decisions. Managers should maintain a balance between the study of serious diseases of workers and the people living near the factory because of the release of toxins from the factory and the loss of economic and financial benefits by closing the factories which causes workers to How to lose unemployment as well Currently, it must involve ethics. These complexities include moral and ethical issues, such as the need to choose between corporate loyalty or corporate social responsibility. Employment selection, especially for certain groups of people and blocking certain groups of people from the above discussion, we can clearly see that ethical decision making is more simple. The simple answer to whether yes or no is not enough to answer the problem.
5. Business ethics as good governance and transparency
However, the argument that all ethics do not have standards, as opposed to everyday experiences Because if this idea is true No one can argue or disagree with any moral problems because of one's ideas, beliefs, and behavior. Will be correct for ourselves (Weiss 1998,15). The belief that good business means good ethics Companies try to maintain a good image of the company. Treat customers and employees of the company honestly. Fairly, the profits and returns that the company will receive are legitimate and morally. If the company adheres to the aforementioned approach, then there is no need to worry about the ethical issues that arise in the workplace. False concepts believe that ethics does not offer specific solutions to specific problems. Business, whether marketing, accounting, finance, research and development, Rogene Buchholz (1989, 28) believes that there is no relationship between goodness with material success (business) Lisa Newton (1989, 249) and Buchholz (1989, 25) say that excellent company culture will help create Defining values and paying attention to employees in the organization rather than using profits as incentives. Therefore, it should be said that Good ethics means good business. This message can be proven by many successful companies that place high ethical values on the importance of reasoning as ethics in business. Ethical reasoning is necessary to run a business. For at least a few important reasons, for example, the law does not cover all aspects of the problem sufficiently (Stone, 1975). In addition, legal action is sometimes unethical. And causing damage to other people.
Free market mechanisms and state-controlled market mechanisms (Free-market and regulated-market Ethical mechanisms often change. In the 1950s, companies in the United States were often granted. In 1977, the United States enacted laws that bribe employees. Including money under the table but in the countries of the Arab countries, Asia, Africa and Latin America Business operations are still corrupt. And bribing employees. Therefore, skipping ethical principles is considered an art. Human reasoning is not perfect. Entrepreneurs with good intentions may make mistakes or make bad decisions. Honest parties may compromise morality. Honesty down in exchange for increased profits for the company Ethical standards and principles are not always sufficient to resolve conflicts, that is, no principles can substitute human judgment. Because the problem is complicated nowadays running business has to face with ethical problems that are a new type of problem which has different forms from past problems. Therefore, those who have to maintain the balance of human life and economic factors to make decisions they should also maintain a balance of education on health protection or serious illness of employees. As well as residents near factories that are at risk of toxic substances released from the factory and the loss of economic and financial benefits by closing the factory which makes workers unemployed.
However, large business operators Nowadays, it has to do with ethical complexity, such as having to choose between corporate loyalty or corporate social responsibility. The selection of employment for certain groups of people and blocking certain groups of people from the above discussion we can clearly see that ethical decisions are highly prized. The simple answer to whether yes or no is not enough to answer the problem.
The idea that doing business must have this ethics. Is associated with the right to make decisions operations and business policies Business ethics stipulate principles and guidelines to help those involved in business have the right choices that must focus on economic benefits, financial equals social responsibility. Business ethics can be considered at many levels. Which is the level of Buddha Organization level, Association level Social level and national level these things illustrate the complexity and connection of ethical decision-making in business operations, of course, from this time on business activities for profitability. Must be monitored by society through close monitoring of business operations in accordance with good governance Conducting business activities wll be a matter of effort going forward to good governance and will be more spacious In the millennium, the world is becoming a digital market, online market, electronic market Artificial intelligence The use of technological innovation from the prosperity that comes with the speed of computer engineering and the growth of IT activities in the 4G-5G era will be more challenging.
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