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Quality of Life of Service Business Employees in Epidemic Situation of CLMV Countries

Dr.Pattita  Toomkerd  ภัทร์ฐิตา ทุมเกิด
Founder and Managing Director Roys Service Co.,Ltd.(HQ)

Special Lecturer, Office of General Education Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand

Email: pattita@roys-services.net


ABSTRACT: This academic article entitled “Quality of Life of Service Business Employees in Epidemic Situation of CLMV countries” is collecting data from the textbooks website theories those are received affected wage per day. Using the Quality of Work Life follow by theory of Richard E. Walton, the result that we collected explained those workers are satisfying their quality of work life in average level. However, they are. When an epidemic occurs the business that is directly affected is the airline business. Tourism and Hotels Employees that will be affected by the drop of tourists there is both unable to use the service as scheduled due to the policies of each country or the fear of the epidemic of tourists themselves, as well as the tourism and hotel businesses that have been predicted by investment experts as the business with the most difficult recovery. They moreover are higher satisfying in the social relevance factor and they are satisfying in the development of human capacities factor, the future opportunity for continued growth and security factor and the total life space factor.   

Keywords: Quality of Life, Service Business, Employees Epidemic Situation
                    CLMV Countries


Nowadays, the business competition is high, together with the changing environment outside the business, constantly changing, causing the business to try to find various management factors. Necessary for sufficient operations in various fields, such as the use of technology such as computer systems, machinery, tools Including management within the organization, both human and work systems that are good in accordance with the external environment of the business in order to facilitate the speed of work and increase business efficiency. Able to carry out the work according to the set goals and to progress further when considering the various resources of a business, human resources are an important mechanism that helps businesses to succeed and differentiate themselves from competitors. Because other business resources can be provided the same, but if any business has good human resources, have knowledge, ability and work efficiently. Naturally helps to lead the business to experience Success in the end however, human resource management needs to be sensitive because each person is completely different in every aspect, whether it is personal, physical, personality, ability, desire, Thongchai Santiwong, 2010) Work is very important to human life. It can be said that work is a part of life that is more practical than any activity, especially in industrial societies. It is estimated that humans spend at least a third of their lives in factories or offices and still believe that in the near future Humans need to spend more time in their work-related lives. In which the working age people are the largest group of the Thai population structure is a group of people who are a key force in driving the country's economy therefore, it is a population group that the government and private sectors focus not only on the development of potential but also for the good quality of life when considering the 12th National Economic and Social Development Plan (2017-2021) which focuses on The result is a good quality of life and happiness in working in the country. At the same time, the quality of work life is very important in the present work. Because people are an important resource it is a valuable social cost. Nowadays, most people have to login to work. Must work to live life and meet basic needs when people have to work mostly at work therefore should have suitable conditions resulting in both physical and mental happiness feeling secure and both physical health. Emotional well-being Spiritual well-being and social well-being (Division of Labor Welfare. 2004: 18) Quality of work life has a large effect on work, which means good feelings towards oneself. Causing good feelings towards work and causes good feelings for the organization. It also helps to promote mental health, helping to progress have developed themselves into quality individuals of the organization And also helps to reduce absenteeism, resignation, reduce accidents and promote good products and services.Both quality and quantity(Tippawan Sisikoon.1999: 18).

The competitiveness of Thai exports in CLMV is in a downward direction compared to the export dynamics of East Asian countries, which account for more than 50 percent of CLMV imports in 2018, up from just 17% in 2015 or in just 3 years, mainly due to the structure of Thai exports to CLMV still focuses on commodities such as refined oil or gold Including food and beverages And consumer products that may not have a high added value, such as bottled water, fruit, whose exports may reach saturation point according to the population unlike exports from both Japan and South Korea, which focus heavily on intermediate products with high added value. In addition, direct investment in the Thai manufacturing sector in CLMV that focuses on food production and chemical production which mainly focuses on using natural resources in CLMV as raw materials therefore does not create concrete production chain links, as well as mid-level products that Thailand exports to CLMV, most of which may not be clearly linked to direct investments from Thailand such as rubber, chemicals for agriculture Integrated circuit.

Quality of working life is very important because people are valuable resources and important to the organization. Therefore, the work environment and atmosphere must be suitable and support work. Causing the operator to feel good for the job which will benefit both individuals and organizations such as helping to increase the productivity of the organization. Due to the quality of life management in the organization, the organization has policies and quality of life planning. There are various strategies for improving the quality of working life, in terms of work characteristics, personnel and good environment, which directly and indirectly affect the operation. Resulting in increased productivity of the organization, helping to increase the morale of the workers. Due to the good quality of working life, the employees are satisfied with the work, resulting in work motivation, which also affects the commitment and loyalty to the organization, helping to improve the potential of the workers. Improving the quality of working life by allowing workers to increase their skills whether by education Training or development both increase the potential of the worker.

Important of Elements about Quality of Life

According to the principle of Richard E. Walton, which appears in the book Creteria for Quality of Working life, there are 8 important elements about quality of life:

1. Adequate and Fair compensation

The worker receives sufficient wages, salaries, compensation and other benefits for living in accordance with generally accepted standards and must be fair when compared to other jobs or organizations of the same type as well

2. Safe and Healthy Environment

Workers should not be in an unhealthy physical and environmental environment. Which will cause bad health the physical and psychological environment, that is, working conditions must not be too risky. And must help the operator feel comfortable and not harmful to health


3. Give employees an opportunity to develop their skills as well (Development of Human Capacities)

The work that is performed must provide the opportunity for operators to use and develop true knowledge and skills and including having the opportunity to work that they recognize as important and meaningful developing the competency of the individual in this work is an emphasis on education, training, career development and personal care of individuals is an indication of quality of life Which will enable people to perform their duties to their full potential Have confidence in yourself

4. Work characteristics that promote growth and security for operators (growth and security)

Not only does the job increase your knowledge and skills in order to gain new knowledge and skills, it also gives operators the opportunity to progress. And have security in your career there are guidelines or opportunities for promotion of higher duties. As well as being accepted by both colleagues and members of their family.

5. The job characteristics are to promote social integration of workers (social integration).

Collaboration means that operators see themselves as valuable Able to perform tasks successfully having good acceptance and cooperation and that job gives the operator the opportunity to build relationships with other people including equal opportunities in progress based on the moral system

6. Work characteristics that are based on laws or justice   

Means management that gives staff / employees Has the right to comply with the assigned scope and to express the rights to each other or is a guideline for working together The culture in the organization or department will promote respect for personal rights and fairness in consideration of rewards and rewards. Including the opportunity for everyone to express their opinions openly Freedom of speech be equal.

7. The balance between life and work as a whole (the total life space)

It is a matter of giving the operator the opportunity to live a balanced work and personal life outside the organization. That is to not let the operator be too much pressure from the operation. Can be done by specifying the appropriate working hours In order to avoid having to concentrate on work until there is no time to rest or have sufficient personal life.

8. The nature of the work is relevant and directly related to society (social relevance)

Work activities carried out in a manner that is socially responsible which is one of the important issues that the operator will feel and accept that the organization in which they operate have social responsibility in various fields both in terms of productivity waste limitation environment protection Employment practices and marketing techniques.

How to have a good quality of working life

  The organization to create a good quality of life in the workplace. It is not just an agency matter. But it is a matter of cooperation between both parties, in terms of employers or organizations and the employee department or staff In which both parties must have operational guidelines in order to achieve the goal of having a good quality of working life together and satisfying both parties creating satisfaction in this work. The author recommends the Two-Factor theory, an interesting motivation theory and is widely known as The Motivation Hygiene Theory can be classified into 2 major groups as follows

Motivator factors are elements or factors directly related to operations Is a factor that motivates personnel in the department to be appreciated Pleased with their work and talents If these factors are met by the operator will give the operator the motivation, determination to work to the best of their ability and can help increase work efficiency These factors namely

Achievement means that people are able to complete work and achieve good results. Recognition (Recognition) means being respected by supervisors. Colleagues, friends, and others This recognition can sometimes be expressed in the form of praise for the work (Work Itself), which means good and bad feelings about the job that is a monotonous job boring or challenge causing originality, creativity, or a difficult or easy task responsibility means the satisfaction arising from being assigned to take responsibility for a new job and having full authority to take responsibility. Career advancement means a change in the status or position of a person in an organization but in the event that a person moves from one department to another organization without changing status it is only an opportunity to give more responsibility, which is called increased responsibility. But not truly a career advancement.

Hygiene factors are components that are not directly related to the job. But the connection with the operation is a factor that is not an incentive but can make the personnel satisfied or dissatisfied with the work. There are 10 commandments which are

1. Supervision means the knowledge and ability of the supervisor in the operation Justice in administration Including the willingness or unwillingness of supervisors to give advice or assign various responsibilities to subordinates.

2. Policy and administration means management and administration of an organization Empowering people to carry out their work successfully.

3. Working condition means a physical environment that will facilitate operations such as light, sound, air, equipment, etc. and the amount of work responsible.

4.Relations with superiors Means meeting, conversation, friendliness as well as job learning from supervisors receiving support from the supervisor honest willing to listen to suggestions from subordinates the trust of the supervisor.

5. Relationship with subordinates it means meeting, conversation, and interaction in the workplace that show good relationship with each other.

6. Relationship with peers means meeting, conversation, friendliness, learning, work in groups and feeling part of the group.

7. Position in the company (status) means to the components of a professional status that make a person feel towards work, such as having a position vehicle.

8. Job security meaning the person's feelings for job security including the stability of the organization.

9. Salary means satisfied or not satisfied with the salary received

10.Personal life means to situations or certain aspects of work that affect one's personal life Causing a person to have a certain feeling about the job they received, such as an organization wanting to get to a new place of work May be far away and cause family difficulty etc.

From all of the above it can be seen that creating a quality of working life is something that is necessary and extremely important quality of working life in the manner of job satisfaction will affect the operation and is also an incentive for working needs which leads to efficiency and ultimately increases the productivity of the company or organization. It can be said that it achieves the goals of both individuals as members of the organization and the organization itself. It also affects the overall economy of the country.

COVID-19 with the Business Directly Affected

When an epidemic occurs the business that is directly affected is the airline business. Tourism and Hotels that will be affected by the drop of tourists there is both unable to use the service as scheduled due to the policies of each country or the fear of the epidemic of tourists themselves, as well as the tourism and hotel businesses that have been predicted by investment experts as the business with the most difficult recovery. Despite a good economic period like the SARS epidemic in 2003, it took 2 quarters to recover, while the MERS epidemic during the global economy and the domestic economy was worse. It takes longer to recover and this group of businesses is still unable to fully recover after the outbreak control the investment market that has the most impact is the stock market. Directly linked to business performance. For the outbreak of Covid-19, there was a widespread outbreak many flights are canceled. Tourists are concerned about traveling to high-risk countries. In which Thailand is one of them Because there are a lot of Chinese tourists coming Causing the first phase of the epidemic Thailand rises to become the second in the country that confirms the infection. But with the ability to control the disease, it is able to screen patients and heal without death reports. while in many other Asian countries such as Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, there is a growing number of confirmed and dead people as well as the outbreak situation that is being upgraded to a more dangerous level it has been declared a serious disease no. 14 and can spread in the air which means although able to control the outbreak but it takes some time the business can then run as normal.

CLMV Countries Groups

Before the founding of ASEAN as in today initially, not from all 10 countries at the same time, but from the 5 founding states, which are Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand, have established themselves before. After that gradually accepting more members until now, there are 10 member countries. For CLMV countries, such as Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia, have gradually become members in ASEAN. Vietnam became a member in 1995, followed by Laos and Myanmar as a member in 1997, and Cambodia becoming a member in 1999. The four countries listed are the differences with the founding members are enormous, both economically, development level and Politics and Governments.

Characteristics of CLMV countries (Cambodia Laos Myanmar Vietnam)

The CLMV countries consist of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam, which are located on the Indochina Peninsula bordering and is also a group of countries that later become members of ASEAN However, such participation underscores the economic and political differences of the ASEAN CLMV countries is a group of countries that are similar in economic matters History and culture and is a group of countries that develop relatively slowly when compared to other countries In Southeast Asia however, after the conflicts in these countries began to resolve, the CLMV countries have received attention from foreign investors. Due to the continuously developed economy is a new market Have abundant natural resources and have the advantage of lower wages than neighboring countries in the same region.

Cambodia announces monthly minimum wage last September. The wage will be increased to 5,700 baht from 5,500 baht approximately or increased by 4.4 percent, but there are still other funds. The employer will add to the wages such as allowances, travel expenses, accommodation, food and bonuses for senior employees. In total, the monthly wage is approximately 6,280 - 6,600 baht or 285-300 baht per day. Speaking of Cambodia, mainly it will increase in labor intensive industries. Including the garment, textile and shoes industry.

Laos, Lao PDR announced the monthly minimum wage on May 1, 2018 and is still at 1.1 million kip, or 3,760 baht, representing a fall in daily wages. Approximately 170 baht per day.

Myanmar, daily minimum wage of Myanmar announced in May 2018 at a rate of 4,800 kyat per day or almost 100 baht per day. Myanmar will adjust the minimum daily wage every 2 years. The new rate is expected to be considered during the month of May. Myanmar's labor organization is trying to demand that the government increase its wages to 5,600 kyat, or approximately 113 baht.

Vietnam announces new monthly minimum wage In November, the four regions will come into force from January 2020, with a 5.7 percent increase, the highest being VND 4.42 million, or 5,700 baht, and in the lowest area of ​​3.07 million VND or Approximately 4,000 baht, representing a daily wage of approximately 180-260 baht.

Former ASEAN Countries

Thailand, the Minimum Wage Committee prepares to submit to the cabinet raise the minimum wage 5-6 baht to come into effect by January 1, 2020, with Chon Buri and Phuket province increasing the maximum 336 baht from 330 baht while Narathiwat, Pattani and Yala province increased to 313 baht from 308 baht on average then adjusted increase by almost 1 percent.

Philippines minimum daily wage rate enforced in November 2018 with a maximum wage of 537 pesos per day or 320 baht for non-agricultural workers and if in the agricultural sector retail businesses and factories with less than 15 workers receive a minimum wage of around 300 baht per day.

Indonesia announces increasing monthly minimum wage rates in November from January 2020, the wage rate will be adjusted by 8.51 percent, from the highest wages in the region at 3.9 million Rupiah to 4.2 million Rupiah, or about 9,250 baht. 420 baht per day while in the lowest wage area in the special area of ​​Yogyakarta Southern Java Island with a minimum wage of approximately 3,700 baht or 168 baht a day.

The minimum wage rate in Indonesia is divided into 34 districts. The higher wages are in large cities like Jakarta, Northern Papua Sulawesi.

Malaysia announces monthly minimum wage increase last October the new minimum wage will be adjusted since January 2020, only in major cities, by increasing to 1,200 ringgit by 8,700 baht or 395 baht per day.

Singapore is considered the highest income country in ASEAN. Essentially, businessmen and businessmen will enter Singapore as a trading and holding company, with people per capita income. The average month is around 5,596 Singapore dollars or 124,894 baht.

Stepping into the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) at the end of 2015 will make ASEAN become an important market. Especially the CLMV countries (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam) due to many factors such as the rate of economic growth in the region continuously improving Low-cost labor The abundance of natural resources Government policy implementation Both in terms of opening free trade establishment of a business facilitation center And increasing investment benefits to investors As for the geography, the CLMV countries are located in the heart of the ASEAN region which is the connection point of major trade routes from all corners of the world. In addition, the CLMV countries are continuously planning, developing and improving the infrastructure with the support of superpower countries such as Japan, China, the United States, and Germany. Therefore, these factors affect make CLMV countries suitable for entrepreneurs in relocating production bases to reduce costs. As well as being a region with a high opportunity to expand the market.

In addition, Thailand faces the problem of rising minimum labor costs, which is the main driving factor let Thai entrepreneurs rush to look for opportunities to adjust their strategies to increase their competitiveness. The CLMV group is the group that can help answer this problem. The increase in Thailand's minimum wage causes the country to lose its competitiveness for neighboring countries. In comparison Thai minimum wage is 5 times higher than Myanmar, 4 times Cambodia, 3.5 times Laos and 3 times Vietnam. Thai entrepreneurs therefore have to bear the higher cost. The rising wage also causes raw materials and other production factors. Upward as well these are important factors that reduce the level of competitiveness of Thai entrepreneurs. Especially in the labor intensive industry. In the event that the market competition intensifies due to the slow global economic situation and the weak domestic economy, Economic Intelligence Center (EIC) suggests 4 strategies that entrepreneurs can use to seize the opportunities from CLMV to move towards a more stable and sustainable future: 1) reducing costs 2) adding value 3) Finding new markets.
4) Finding opportunities from related businesses as the following

1) Cost reduction strategy is suitable for businesses that currently have intensive skilled labor. Thai entrepreneurs can increase their competitiveness by moving production bases out to the CLMV to reduce costs from labor and raw materials. Cheap price this strategy is suitable for light manufacturing industry or industry that uses unskilled labor and semi-skilled labor. For example, garment factories Shoe factory can move production base to Cambodia to use unskilled labor which is cheaper than Thailand While the electronics manufacturing industry or other high-tech industries can move production base to Vietnam due to having a semi-skilled labor base. In addition, Vietnam is directly supporting this industry to receive the highest tax benefits compared to other industries and if being a contractor (Subcontractor) or supplier (Big Part) for big companies such as Samsung, Hyundai, Nikon, Intel, Nissan, Toyota or LG, which has moved production base to Hi-Tech Park in Vietnam, will be able to further expand business in In this regard, the Vietnamese government has simplified the regulation of being a high-tech industry. According to regulations 19/2015 / QD-TTg, for example, reducing the proportion of total revenue from high-tech products to 70%, instead of having all the 100% of high-tech products coming into effect this August. Be wary of investments in the CLMV, including hidden costs. That may occur, such as hidden costs from labor in the strike Hidden costs from infrastructure, such as power shortages in parts of Myanmar and Cambodia, make electricity prices more expensive than Thailand.

2) Value-added strategies can be adapted for businesses that want to upgrade their competitiveness and avoid increasing competition in the basic products market Nowadays, Thai entrepreneurs face competition. In the export of raw materials or primary products are intensifying from players with production bases in CLMV which have lower costs. Whether agricultural products or light industrial products such as clothing, car seats, so adding value to these products can turn the crisis into opportunities by expanding from basic products to value added products by relying on brand building Modifying the appearance and packaging for added benefits and usability. For example the change from the export of white rice in sacks to rice brown rice in modern packaging. Looks good with standards Exports of coated banana in various flavors Instead of exporting fresh bananas Electrical circuit board exports with new designs to meet the needs of the market instead of exporting small components with low value. In addition to exporting to Europe, the United States and China can also export to CLMV countries as well. The CLMV population is widely popular with Thai products due to have a good view and attitude towards Thai products by looking at products from Thailand with better standards than those from China, Indonesia or their own countries.

3) Strategies for finding new markets suitable for businesses or services that will help facilitate daily life and meet the needs of the middle class in the CLMV countries which are increasing. Thai household consumption tends to continually slow down. Currently growing only 1% from the previous year, causing Thai entrepreneurs to be pressured to stimulate demand for products. This condition forces the competition for more intense customers. The new open market such as CLMV is an interesting option. Both in terms of diversifying risks from slow-growing domestic markets and intense competition the rising middle class and the reduced poverty rate of the CLMV countries have resulted in increased demand for consumer goods and services, reflecting that household spending has increased many times in the past. How many years ago the businesses that have a high chance of expanding into these new markets are housing construction and construction materials. Retail business convenience store Beauty and Spa business instant food and consumer products restaurant business etc.

4) Strategies for finding opportunities from related businesses, including businesses in the cluster group and various service groups In connection with investment in the CLMV countries' infrastructure, CLMV's leap forward economic growth after liberalization Causing continuous development, both infrastructure and entering the urban society by developing various infrastructure such as the construction of new roads and improving the highway between the districts and internationally to be more connected electric train construction in big cities improvements of various public transportation systems received support from major powers such as Japan, China, the United States, including the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. All of these result in creating opportunities for related businesses to grow with these growths, including the construction business. Business for rent / buy / sell real estate Publishing business Advertising business Telecommunications business Publishing business Advertising business Telecommunications business and various service businesses such as security services safety equipment advisory services Etc. Although there are many opportunities in many dimensions from the CLMV, the most important thing to succeed is to bring your own expertise to seize opportunities in new markets. Not just Thai entrepreneurs who saw the opportunity in this new market. Other countries with high potential, whether it be China, Japan, Korea or Singapore, are looking at the same image. Therefore, to enter the said market. Thai entrepreneurs should therefore use their expertise to compete another important success factor is looking for local business partners in the CLMV countries to rely on a host that understands markets, culture, society, laws and better local information. To adapt to the business operations of Thai entrepreneurs by how quickly Thai entrepreneurs are able to find business alliances will greatly benefit those entrepreneurs since the potential partners in each country are limited.


In the midst of the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus around the world, and at this time there has been an increase in the number of infected people in CLMV, counties I would like to send encouragement to all people of CLMV counties and would like to inform you that Embassy monitoring the situation closely, including the CLMV government's measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19, may affect the daily lives of Thai brothers and sisters, such as temperature monitoring. Body and signs of infection at various locations. Reducing community mobilization in the form of shutting down schools nationwide. Carnival cancellation and temporary closing of entertainment venues Anxious and paranoid, an infection that appears to be easily infected and in many forms.

Economists around the world have analyzed the impact on the global economy that will affect through the global supply chain due to the shortage of labor and raw materials. Because China, the world's largest intermediate manufacturing and exporting product need to stop production as the Chinese authorities have strict control measures. "Like never before" unlike the SARS outbreak in Guangdong province in 2003, especially the closure of Wuhan, the beginning of the outbreak, as well as other large cities.

Must not forget that Wuhan city is a center for electronics and automotive products Is the center of trade, transportation of China Both the train and the airport are connected to the main airlines of the world. It is therefore not surprising that this crisis will have a rather severe impact, as the impact on production may vary in each country, depending on the dependence on intermediate raw materials from China and the differences in the industry. Especially in the automotive industry, most of which have a Zero Inventory or Just in time is more likely to be affected.

The impact is expected to be more severe than SARS.

Many institutions expect that COVID-19 will create higher economic damage than the case of SARS originating in China as well. At that time it was estimated that the global GDP would fall by 54,000 million US dollars or equivalent to 0.14% for this effect. In global trade, the UNCTAD report (2020) points out that China's manufacturing PMI (February 2020) has been the lowest since 2004 and is estimated to damage $ 50,000 million in the supply chain. With the greatest impact in the EU (15.6 billion US dollars), followed by the United States (5,800 million US dollars), Japan (5,200 million US dollars), Korea (3,800 million US dollars). Vietnam (2,300 million US dollars) while Thailand is stuck Lie ranked 11th with 700 million US dollars worth of damage. The manufacture of rubber and plastic. Tools, machinery, chemicals, automotive communications equipment in Thailand are the areas that will be most affected.

Tourism The International Air Transport Association (IATA) estimates that there is a limited epidemic. World tourism revenue will decrease by 63,000 million US dollars, with Asia being the most affected, followed by other Europe, Japan, Italy and Germany, all of which are major tourist destinations for Chinese tourists. Will affect Thai tourism for at least 6 months and lose income of over 2.5 billion baht. The main reasons for this effect are expected to be greater than in the case of three major outbreaks, such as SARS, influenza, 2009 and MERS, because the Chinese economy is even larger as well as having more links to trade, investment, and transportation with the world. In 2018, the Chinese economy is 16% of the global economy. 4 times larger than the SARS epidemic and accounted for 13% of the world export value, 39% of world industrial production and 18% of world tourism value including the present day, with a high level of globalization where the world's people are assimilated economically Technology and society and culture more than in the past


1) Being a research center And develop vaccines with ASEAN countries by focusing on exchanging knowledge for regional health development.

2) Being the center of vaccine production in Thailand and distribute vaccines to CLMV countries, which are also countries that want to import vaccines from foreign countries.

 3) Be the epidemic surveillance center in ASEAN Be prepared to handle the health crisis that may occur in the region.

The establishment of the said center will help enhance the potential of Thai researchers as well as pushing Thailand to become a leader in public health at the regional level, in line with the next steps of government policy in supporting Thailand to be "Medical Hub of ASEAN"



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       2. CLMV and ASEAN-6 through the Initiatives for ASEAN Integration: In Pursuit of the ASEAN Economic Community. http://artnet.unescap.org/mtg/pari-denise.pdf (accessed April 2, 2020).

      3.Kris Suebson. (1994). Culture and Communication Behavior within the organization. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University.

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       5.Phajon Chalermsarn. (2012). Quality of working life. Searched from www.society.go.th/article_attach.

       6. Pichit Phithepthepsombat (2009). Job Satisfaction and Organizational commitment: definition, theory, research methods, measurement and research. (2nd edition). Bangkok: Semadharma.

       7.Pou Sovachana.(2014).The Challenges of the CLMV Countries and the Role of Development Partner. www.aseancenter.org.tw/upload/files/outlook008-05.pdf (accessed April 2, 2020).

      8.Tippawan Sisikoon.(1999). Quality of Work Life and Organizational Commitment: A Case Study of Financial Institution Asset Management Corporation

      9.Thongchai Santiwong. (2010). Consumer Behavior in Marketing. 5th edition, Bangkok: Thaiwattanapanich Printing

      10.Walton, R. E. (1973). Quality of working life: What is it? Slone Management Review, 15, 12-18.



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