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Swasdee ! How are you doing today ?

Today at last year, it was the deepest sorrow day of all Thais. According to King Rama 9th was passed away. Since then we fallen into sadness of thinking Him always.

Many thank to Google Translate again today.

 

FRANCE 24 Live – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/9c_Bac-17Rk

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The Many Reasons for the Word 'The'

October 12, 2017

everyday grammar
everyday grammar
 

The 1995 film Dead Man has a strange opening scene.

Actor Johnny Depp is sitting on a train. A man sits down across from Depp’s character, and speaks to him:

"Look out the window. And doesn't this remind you of when you were in the boat, and then later that night, you were lying, looking up at the ceiling, and the water in your head was not dissimilar from the landscape…"

 

Today we will explore the word 'the.'

Yes, the word 'the.' You heard it many times in the audio from the movie.

English speakers use this word for several reasons – some of which we will discuss in this program.

Today, we will show you how Americans use 'the' in everyday speech, writing, and even in the arts, such as literature or movies.

But first, we need to give you a few definitions.

What are articles?

Articles are words that go before nouns. They tell if the noun is general or specific.

When an article is specific, it is called a definite article. The word 'the' is a definite article.

English speakers use 'the' when both the speaker and the listener know what is being referred to. They can have this shared understanding for any number of reasons.

Sometimes the noun is already known, for example. Sometimes the speakers are referring to nouns that are unique. At other times, the situation makes it clear what the noun refers to.

#1 Thing being referred to is known from the context

One of the main reasons Americans use the word 'the' when they are speaking is because the noun being referred to is clearly understood. The noun could be something seen or heard in an area around the speakers, or it could be a part of their daily lives.

Let's listen to an example. You can hear the speakers use 'the' in an everyday situation – at the dinner table.

1: The pasta turned out great!

2: Thank you!

1: Would you mind passing me the butter?

2: Sure thing!

1: Oh, I just remembered I forgot to let the dog outside! I'll be right back.

In the example, you heard the speakers use the word 'the' three times: 'the pasta;' 'the butter;' and 'the dog.'

The reason the speakers used 'the' is because the nouns they were referring to were clear in the context – in this case, the dinner table. The speakers all understood that they were eating pasta, and that there was butter nearby.

The meaning of 'the dog' is clear to them because the animal is a part of their daily lives. Even if it is not in the room at the time, both speakers know what 'the dog' is referring to.

#2 Modifiers of the noun specify the thing being referred to

One of the common reasons you will see the word 'the' in writing is because modifiers of the noun specify what is being referred to. The modifiers of the noun change it from a general noun to a specific noun.

Although more common in writing, you can hear examples in films. Let's listen to this example from the 1955 film Seven Year Itch.

"The island of Manhattan derives its name from its earliest inhabitants - the Manhattan Indians."

In the film, the speaker said 'the island of Manhattan' because the modifier, the words “of Manhattan”, gives information about the noun 'island.' The word 'island' could be a general or specific noun, but when it is modified it becomes a specific noun – the island of Manhattan.

In the example you heard, the modifier came after the noun. However, sometimes the modifier can come before the noun.

For example, you might see a story about buildings in the United States. The story might say, "Chicago has the tallest building in America."

Here, 'tallest' modifies the noun 'building.' This is a specific noun because only one building can be the tallest.

#3 Presenting something as familiar

The last reason speakers and writers use the word 'the' is for stylistic purposes. This is most common in fiction writing and movies.

By using the article 'the', the writer or speaker is able to make the reader or listener more interested in the story. People are likely to show an interest because the writer or speaker is presenting information as if it is understood - even if it is not!

Let's listen again to the opening lines from Dead Man.

"Look out the window. And doesn't this remind you of when you were in the boat, and then later that night, you were lying, looking up at the ceiling, and the water in your head was not dissimilar from the landscape…"

In the film, the strange man uses specific language – the boat, the ceiling, and so on. This language is not understood by those of us watching. Viewers start asking themselves questions like ‘Which boat is the man talking about?’ And, ‘Which ceiling?’

In other words, the viewer or listener is more curious about the story because they do not know what the man is talking about.

This is a common technique you will see often in films and books, such as thrillersand mystery stories.

What can you do?

The next time you are watching films or talking with an English speaker, try to listen for examples of the word 'the'. Ask yourself why the speaker is using 'the' instead of a different article – such as ‘a’ or ‘an’.

The process of recognizing and understanding articles can be a difficult one. However, with time and effort, you will use them with no trouble. And we will be here to help!

I'm Alice Bryant.

And I'm John Russell.

 

John Russell wrote this story for Learning English. George Grow was the editor. _____________________________________________________________

Words in the Story

 

scene – n. a part of a play, movie, story, etc., in which a particular action or activity occurs

refer – v. to have a direct connection or relationship to (something) often + to

modifier – n. grammar : a word (such as an adjective or adverb) or phrase that describes another word or group of words

derive – v. to take or get (something) from (something else)

stylistic – adj. of or relating to an artistic way of doing things

fiction – n. something invented by the intention; written stories that are not real

thriller – n. a very exciting book or movie

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Learning English TV

 

Explainer: Off the Record

October 12, 2017
 
 
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New WHO Study Finds Sharp Increase in Child Obesity

October 11, 2017

A new study provides evidence of a sharp increase in the number of obese and overweight children and young adults worldwide in just 40 years.

The study was a project of researchers at Imperial College London and the World Health Organization (WHO). The findings were released this week at WHO’s headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.

Obesity is a condition in which the body stores large, unhealthy amounts of fat. Obese individuals are considered overweight.

The researchers studied obesity rates among children and young people, between five and 19 years of age. They found that rates in this group increased from 11 million in 1975 to 124 million in 2016.

This was one of the biggest epidemiological studies ever done. The researchers examined height and weight data for about 130 million people. They used this information to get the Body Mass Index measurements of the subjects.

The most striking changes have taken place in Middle Income Countries in areas such as East Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America. The WHO defines Middle Income Countries as places where a person normally earns between $1,045 and $12,736 every year.

Majid Ezzati, a professor at Imperial College London, was the chief writer of a report on the study. He was surprised by the speed of change.

“So places that a few decades ago, there may have been very little obesity and a fair amount of underweight [children], suddenly are having bordering epidemics.”

In countries where wages are higher, the growth of childhood obesity has slowed, but remains high. The United States had the highest obesity rates for this income group.

Researchers say the world’s obesity problem is a result of food marketing and poor policymaking in many areas.

Ezzati notes that, in general, young people are not to blame.

“Rather than sort of being an individual’s choice, it’s hard environments that people choose their foods in – healthy foods being priced out of reach, and especially out of reach of poor, and unhealthy foods being marketed aggressively, together with perhaps not having a safe playing area for children, that are leading to weight gain.”

Being overweight can cause many diseases later in life, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some cancers. Ezzati says obesity also has a big effect on children, with some evidence suggesting it can affect their educational performance.

Underweight also a problem

The study also looked at underweight children, which continues to be a major health problem in the world’s poorest areas.

Ezzati says the researchers found that India had the highest rates of moderately and severely underweight young people.

“We really need to deal with the two issues at the same time. So we can’t wait to deal with underweight, and then worry about overweight and obesity. They are all different forms of malnutrition."

The report warned that if current trends continue, levels of child and adolescent obesity could pass those of moderately and severely underweight children by 2022. It said these problems are especially serious in some parts of Asia and African countries south of the Sahara Desert.

Global solutions

The report is calling for policymakers to find ways to make healthy food more available at home and school, especially in poorer families and communities. It also calls for higher taxes on unhealthy foods.

The WHO’s Fiona Bull says effective, low-cost measures to lower childhood obesity are available.

She said solutions include restricting marketing, taxing some food products, and creating better food labeling policies. She said that better labels will give people, “clear information about the contents of food … like the salt, fat, and sugar content.”

Bull added that children should be spend less time playing games on the Internet or watching television, and instead turn to more physical activities and sports. She said obese children are likely to become obese adults. This means they risk early death from obesity-related diseases.

I’m Anna Matteo.

Henry Ridgwell and Lisa Schlein reported on this story for VOANews.com. Phil Dierking adapted their reports for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

Do people eat healthy in your country? What do you think the best way for a country to change its eating habits? We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section or on our Facebook page.

____________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

 

Body Mass Index – n. a weight-to-height ratio, calculated by dividing one's weight in kilograms by the square of one's height in meters and used as an indicator of obesity and underweight.

decade – n. a period of 10 years

epidemic – n. a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.

epidemiology – n. the branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health.

income – n. money received, especially on a regular basis, for work or through investments.

trend – n. a general movement

label – n. written or printed information on a product

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NEWS AROUND


 

Pictures of a Royal life

lifestyle October 12, 2017 13:24

By The Nation

Pepsi-Cola (Thai) has collaborated with illustrator Priyasri “Naamnoi” Promchinda in launching the “Wholeheartedly Connected” picture book to honour His Majesty the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej and his devotion to the Thai people.

The book brings together nine illustrations with a poem featuring the late King’s humble attributes and talents namely Devotion, Humbleness, Patience, Self-development, Gratefulness, Sportsmanship, Self-sufficiency, Simplicity, and Compassion. Inspired by the “Connect the Dots” game, each illustration allows recipients to take part in drawing pictures of the “Father of the Thai nation” by simply connecting the heart-shaped dots.

A total of 9,999 copies of the “Wholeheartedly Connected” picture book will be given away to the public free of charge. Those interested can get a copy of the picture book at a booth located in front of the Bangkok Art & Cultural Centre (BACC) on October 21 (5,000 copies) and October 22 (4,999 copies) from noon to 6pm. 

During the event, visitors can also view the original illustrations in colour and draw pictures of the late monarch by connecting the dots on a touchscreen in the mini exhibition area, on the first floor of BACC from 10am to 9pm.

For those who miss out on a paper copy, the picture book is also available for free download in PDF format at https://goo.gl/mhECQ4 

  • The royal crematorium of His Majesty the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej is almost complete.
  • This sketch of the royal crematorium of the beloved monarch was prepared by Kokiart Thongphud on the night of his passing, a year ago today.
  • Kokiart Thongphud
  • Thai architectural students of Silpakorn University create a model of the royal crematorium of King Rama VI that follows the design of Prince Narisara Nuvadtivongs.
  • Based on the original design by Arwut Ngernchuklin, a model of the royal crematorium of Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana is created by Silpakorn University students.
  • The royal crematorium of His Majesty the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej is almost complete.
 

Designed for a divinity

Art October 13, 2017 01:00

By Khetsirin Pholdhampalit 
The Nation 

The architect of the Royal Crematorium talks about his inspirations for the elaborate structure

HIS MAGNIFICENT Phra Merumas, the royal crematorium, is almost complete but artist Kokiart Thongphud is not counting the days until it comes into use. 

“While I know that this is the most magnificent and majestic structure I have ever designed, I am neither glad nor proud to see it become a reality. My heart is crying and I don’t want October 26 to come – the day when I will send my beloved King back to heaven,” says the 49-year-old artist with the Fine Arts Department, who started work on designing the crematorium only hours after His Majesty the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej passed away on October 13 last year.

The royal crematorium of His Majesty the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej is almost complete. 

Like all Thais, Kokiart did not let his grief and suffering keep him from his work. The elaborate royal crematorium for King Bhumibol is the tallest of any such structures since the reign of King Rama V.

“My respected master Prince Naris – Prince Narisara Nuvadtivongs, considered the great master of Siamese art – once said that the highest and widest structure of Phra Merumas signified the greatest dignity. My first design had the structure standing 80 metres high on a 120-metre-wide base, but it was too large for Sanam Luang as it is today. I eventually had to settle on a practical structure 55.18 metres high and 60 metres wide,” says Kokiart, who was the right-hand man of the celebrated late architect Arwut Ngernchuklin, designer of the royal crematoria for HRH the Princess Mother, HRH Princess Galyani Vadhana and Princess Bejaratana Rajasuda in 1996, 2008 and 2012 respectively.

 

 

This sketch of the royal crematorium of the beloved monarch was prepared by Kokiart Thongphud on the night of his passing, a year ago today.

Kokiart prepared five draft designs of the royal crematorium in the busabok style in line with the structures sketched by the old masters since the reign of King Rama V. These showed elaborate pavilions with ornately decorated tiered roofs topped by one, five and nine spires respectively. The five drafts along with other artists’ sketches were presented to Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, the president of the Royal Funeral Committee, and the Princess selected his design featuring nine pavilions, each standing independently of the others.

The royal crematorium comprises nine busabok-style pavilions sitting on a three-tiered, square shaped base with a staircase on each of the four sides. On the topmost tier is the seven-tiered, spire-roofed principle pavilion, which will house the royal urn, while each of the four corners on the second tier have five-tiered, roofed pavilions called sang, which will be used by monks to chant scriptures during the ceremony. The remaining four pavilions are located at each of the four corners on the first tier. 

Kokiart also marks the centre of the royal crematorium from where two axes intersect – one from the spire of the Phra Si Ratana Chedi pagoda in the adjacent Wat Phra Kaew and the other from the middle of the phra ubosot or ordination hall in the nearby Wat Maha That.

The structure is in three key colours of gold, white and grey. Gold doesn’t just symbolise kingship, but is also used as a substitute for yellow – the colour of Monday, the day on which the King was born. White represents both purity and righteousness and grey – a shade known as “dove-grey” – is the shade King Bhumibol chose for the structure of the Bangkok City Pillar Shrine and the roof of Wat Praram Kao Chalerm Phrakiat, built at his initiative.

Kokiart Thongphud

“There is very little difference in the design shown in the first draft, which was completed on the night the beloved Monarch passed away, and the structure that is nearly complete,” says Teerachat Virayuttanond, an architect with the Fine Arts Department, who translated Kokiart’s hand-written sketches for the computer-aided design program and also helped with designing the architectural landscape of the supplementary structures in the ceremonial ground.

Unlike the previous royal crematoria that were mainly made from wood, new construction technologies in the computer age have allowed the Phra Merumas structure to be built with pre-fabricated steel. These have been produced away from the funeral ground then transported to Sanam Luang for assembly. The inner steel structures are covered with wood that’s intricately decorated with an elaborate design. It can accommodate more than 7,000 people. 

“Without the references of the old masters like Prince Naris, Phra Phrombhichitr, Ajarn Praves Limparangsi and Ajarn Arwut, I probably wouldn’t have been able to complete this task,” says Kokiart who was among the speakers in a recent talk “Phra Merumas of HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej” at Silpakorn University, held as part of the exhibition “Phra Merumas of the Rattanakosin Period”.

As the royal crematorium symbolises Mount Sumeru, the centre of the universe, to where the late King will return, the base is decorated with auspicious animals and mythical creatures to represent the Anodard pond in the heavenly Himmaphan Forest. 

“Ajarn Arwut always taught me that in design, we must first think who we are designing for and the end user. I therefore tried to translate the late Monarch’s greatest contributions to the country into a magnificent visual structure while ensuring it was functional for those coming to bid a final farewell to their beloved King.” 

The works of the masters referred to by Kokiart can be seen in the exhibition that continues until October 31. Visitors will be able to admire reproductions of the architectural designs of the royal crematoria built for King Rama VI by Prince Naris, for King Rama VIII by Phra Phrombhichitr, for Queen Rambai Barni - Queen consort of Rama VII - by Praves, and for HRH Princess Galyani Vadhana by Arwut. 

Thai architectural students of Silpakorn University create a model of the royal crematorium of King Rama VI that follows the design of Prince Narisara Nuvadtivongs.

Silpakorn University’s architecture students have added to the grandeur of the exhibition by building models of the royal crematoria of King Rama VI, Queen Rambai Barni and Princess Galyani Vadhana. 

Based on the original design by Arwut Ngernchuklin, a model of the royal crematorium of Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana is created by Silpakorn University students.

 

“The monarch is highly revered as a divine king, a tradition influenced by Hinduism and Buddhist beliefs. Therefore, the royal crematorium hall must be a grand and imposing building designed to ascend to heaven - a symbolic representation of Mount Meru, which is the centre of the universe in Buddhist cosmology. 

 

An old photo shows the grandeur of the royal wood crematorium of King Rama IV in prang (Khmer-style tower) style and was taller than the central prang of Wat Arun.

“During the early Rattankosin era, no crematorium was grander, taller and larger than that of King Rama IV whose crematorium hall reached a height of more than 80 metres, making it taller than the central prang (Khmer-style tower) of Wat Arun,” says Patsaweesiri Preamkulanan of Silpakorn University’s Faculty of Archaeology. 

King Rama V, however, considered that the massive size of the royal crematorium required tons of wood and wasted both manpower and money and ordered that his own crematorium be scaled down so that it fitted better with Siam’s opening to the world. 

King Rama V scaled down the size of his royal crematorium, which was designed in busabok style and became the model for the crematoria of his successors. 

“Instead of the usual prang-style pavilions, King Rama V’s royal crematorium was done in shape of |busabok and served as a model for later Kings.

“Though the late King Bhumibol’s funeral brings great sadness to the entire nation, it’s a rare occasion for all of us to witness a revival of Thai traditional arts and architecture and thus be able to pass that knowledge on to the next generation,” says Patsaweesiri.

 

Splendours of the past

The exhibition “Phra Merumas of the Rattanakosin Period” continues until October 31 at Silpakorn University’s Wang Tha Pra campus. Call (02) 623 6115-21 or visit www.Su.ac.th.

Learn more about King Bhumibol’s royal crematorium and the cremation ceremony at www.KingRama9.th.

 

........................................

 FINISHED

October 13, 2017 

 

 



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