Let us know about stem cell as I've got from Wikipedia and post for you at below. It can be the medical uses very much. And please know that you can devote your stem cells at medical bank.
Many thanks to Google Translate also.
In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. This demonstrates that the cells can produce new blood cells over a long term. It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew.
Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew. Stem cells can also be isolated by their possession of a distinctive set of cell surface markers. However, in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, making it unclear whether the cells shall behave in a similar manner in vivo. There is considerable debate as to whether some proposed adult cell populations are truly stem cells.
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are the cells of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage embryo. Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50–150 cells. ES cells are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta.
During embryonic development these inner cell mass cells continuously divide and become more specialized. For example, a portion of the ectoderm in the dorsal part of the embryo specializes as 'neurectoderm', which will become the future central nervous system. Later in development, neurulation causes the neurectoderm to form the neural tube. At the neural tube stage, the anterior portion undergoes encephalization to generate or 'pattern' the basic form of the brain. At this stage of development, the principal cell type of the CNS is considered a neural stem cell. These neural stem cells are pluripotent, as they can generate a large diversity of many different neuron types, each with unique gene expression, morphological, and functional characteristics. The process of generating neurons from stem cells is called neurogenesis. One prominent example of a neural stem cell is the radial glial cell, so named because it has a distinctive bipolar morphology with highly elongated processes spanning the thickness of the neural tube wall, and because historically it shared some glial characteristics, most notably the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The radial glial cell is the primary neural stem cell of the developing vertebrate CNS, and its cell body resides in the ventricular zone, adjacent to the developing ventricular system. Neural stem cells are committed to the neuronal lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes), and thus their potency is restricted.
Nearly all research to date has made use of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) or human embryonic stem cells (hES) derived from the early inner cell mass. Both have the essential stem cell characteristics, yet they require very different environments in order to maintain an undifferentiated state. Mouse ES cells are grown on a layer of gelatin as an extracellular matrix (for support) and require the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor(LIF) in serum media. A drug cocktail containing inhibitors to GSK3B and the MAPK/ERK pathway, called 2i, has also been shown to maintain pluripotency in stem cell culture. Human ES cells are grown on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and require the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2). Without optimal culture conditions or genetic manipulation, embryonic stem cells will rapidly differentiate.
A human embryonic stem cell is also defined by the expression of several transcription factors and cell surface proteins. The transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 form the core regulatory network that ensures the suppression of genes that lead to differentiation and the maintenance of pluripotency. The cell surface antigens most commonly used to identify hES cells are the glycolipids stage specific embryonic antigen 3 and 4 and the keratan sulfate antigens Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. By using human embryonic stem cells to produce specialized cells like nerve cells or heart cells in the lab, scientists can gain access to adult human cells without taking tissue from patients. They can then study these specialized adult cells in detail to try and catch complications of diseases, or to study cells reactions to potentially new drugs. The molecular definition of a stem cell includes many more proteins and continues to be a topic of research.
There are currently no approved treatments using embryonic stem cells. The first human trial was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009. However, the human trial was not initiated until October 13, 2010 in Atlanta for spinal cord injury research. On November 14, 2011 the company conducting the trial (Geron Corporation) announced that it will discontinue further development of its stem cell programs. ES cells, being pluripotent cells, require specific signals for correct differentiation—if injected directly into another body, ES cells will differentiate into many different types of cells, causing a teratoma. Differentiating ES cells into usable cells while avoiding transplant rejection are just a few of the hurdles that embryonic stem cell researchers still face. Due to ethical considerations, many nations currently have moratoria or limitations on either human ES cell research or the production of new human ES cell lines. Because of their combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, embryonic stem cells remain a theoretically potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease.
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paralyze – v. to make (a person or animal) unable to move or feel all or part of the body : paralyzed – adj.
miracle – n. a very amazing or unusual event, thing, or achievement
induce – v. to cause (something) to happen or exist
regenerate – v. biology : to grow again after being lost, damaged, etc.
perception – n. the way that you notice or understand something using one of your senses
transplant – medical v. : to perform a medical operation in which an organ or other part that has been removed from the body of one person is put into the body of another person : also transplant – medicaln. : a medical operation in which an organ or other part is removed from the body of one person and put into the body of another person
therapy – n. the treatment of physical or mental illnesses
American Revolution Museum Filling a Need in Philadelphia
3 hours ago
FILE - Sydney James Harcourt, an original cast member from the Broadway musical "Hamilton" performs with students from the Philadelphia High School for the Creative and Performing Arts during opening ceremonies for the Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia, Wednesday, April 19, 2017. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)
The Museum of the American Revolution celebrates its one-year anniversary this month.
Officials say the museum is having success in getting visitors in a city filled with revolutionary war history.
You can stop by the Museum of the American Revolution during a visit to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Philadelphia was the place where the Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. A few years later, the city served as the early capital of the United States.
FILE - This April 10, 2017, file photo shows the Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia.
The museum will celebrate its first birthday on April 19. That is also the anniversary of the first gunshots fired at the battles of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, in 1775. These battles led to the revolutionary war between Britain and its North American colonies.
In honor of its first birthday, the Museum of the American Revolution is adding some exhibits while leaving its most popular ones unchanged.
“We had no idea how people were going to receive this story of the revolution as we have written it,” said the museum’s Scott Stephenson. “But the public response has been tremendous,” he added, noting they have received support from all sides.
The campaign to build and open the museum succeeded in raising $173 million. The goal was $150 million.
In this June 5, 2014 photo, Scott Stephenson, Director of Collections and Interpretation, uncovers the recently conserved George Washington's flag.
Stephenson is the museum’s vice president of collections, exhibitions and programming. He said this has been a good year to open a museum about the American Revolution for a number of reasons.
One was the public debate over the removal of Civil War statues honoring Confederate soldiers. In addition, Americans have debated the Second Amendment to the U.S. constitution because of school shootings. The amendment guarantees Americans the right to keep and bear arms.
Inside the museum
The museum’s exhibit starts with the event in New York City where Americans pulled down the statue of Britain’s King George III. The incident happened after a public reading of the Declaration of Independence.
Stephenson said he has overheard several debates from museum visitors about the act of removing statues. “Most people would agree, regardless of their political affiliation, that this is one of those moments of deep reflection of who we are as a people,” he said.
Planned new additions to the museum will include a look at Philadelphia at the time of Alexander Hamilton, the early American statesman. The museum also plans to open the “Revolution Place Discovery Center,” which will recreate historical environments for families to experience.
Photo depicts George Washington, center, braking up a fight amongst American soldiers including an African American man, lower right, who served in a New England regiment, at the Museum of the American Revolution
Photo shows an actual piece of the Annapolis, Md., Liberty Tree, embedded into an 18-foot-tall tree replica as a touchable element at the Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)
Photo shows a newborn's shoes made from a British red coat brought back at the end of the Revolutionary War
Interacting with history
On a recent day, Bill and Amanda Hrehowsik and their two sons were visiting the Museum of the American Revolution from their home in Middletown, New Jersey.
The museum was at the top of their list to visit because it was new, and because 10-year-old Matthew Hrehowsik was studying the revolutionary war.
“It’s really interesting, because there was some stuff I learned here that I didn’t learn in school,” he said.
Maud Lyon is president of the Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance. She told the Associated Press that it is difficult for all Philadelphia museums to get visitors to move “beyond the bell” — meaning the Liberty Bell.
Lyon added that said the Museum of the American Revolution is an important place “…that was much needed in Philly to tell the historic story we are known for.”
I’m Lucija Millonig.
Photo shows a replica of a privateer ship at the Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia.
Photo shows a display of weapons used during the Revolutionary War, including a fife and drum, at the Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia.
Kristen de Groot reported this story for the Associated Press. Phil Dierking adapted her story for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.
affiliation – n. the state of being closed allied with a person or group
exhibit – n. an object or a collection of objects that have been put together in a public space
tremendous – adj. of notable size, power or greatness
Confederate – adj. related to the Confederate States of America
response – n. a reaction; answer
reflection – n. an image that is seen on a shiny surface
bear – v. to carry
bell – n. a metallic device that gives off a sound when struck
stuff – n. things
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Family Day for Krabi’s 111 year old granny
Around Thailand April 16, 2018 18:57
By The Thaiger
The house of the oldest citizen in Krabi, 111-year-old Pliew Petchpuang, in Plaipraya district, was filled with the buzz of her children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren as they gathered for Family Day and Thai New Year on Monday.
All were dressed in tradition Thai outfits and gathered at the house to get blessed by the oldest family member. Most live in other villages or other provinces and always come together at this time of the year.
Pliew’s granddaughter-in-law, Orapin Petchpuang, said that the matriarch was born in 1907 when Thailand was in the reign of King Rama 5 and has lived through the reigns of five Kings.
Her overall health is excellent, said Pliew – she has fine vision and her listening is “quite good”. She can still communicate with others well and walks without a cane.
Pliew shared her longevity tips, noting that her diet is mainly vegetables and chili paste. She eats little meat and does what she can to remain active.
Police arrest 6 women executives in alleged Andaman tour company scam
Breaking News April 16, 2018 16:41
By The Nation
Police have arrested six female suspects linked to a tour company that allegedly swindled customers of Bt10million for bogus tour packages, Deputy Tourist Police chief Maj-General Surachet Hakpan told a press conference in Bangkok on Monday.
The suspects named as executives of the tour company were Thanyarat Sansangwal, 31, Nawanat Phosuk, 34, Kwanreuthai Monkaew, 22, Sathaporn Thongphrom, 36, Thanipa Kanhachat, 39, and Monthathip Ployprapasmuk, 42. The six women were arrested on Sunday under warrants issued on April 11 by the Satun Court over charges of public fraud and illegally operating a tour business resulting in damages to tourists.
The case also has two male suspects – company owner Thaworn Kaewkrai, 51, who was arrested on March 26, and the elusive company manager, Pratheep Kaewnont, 43.
Surachet said the police investigation discovered that the company was owned by Thaworn.
They learned that Pratheep was wanted in a series of other public fraud cases and had served a 2014 jail term over fraud committed when he managed a Krabi resort.
Prathep served as the tour company's manager and reportedly was the key player in this recent wrongdoing, Surachet said.
The case at first stemmed from a police complaint filed on March 24 by 44 Thai tourists at Satun’s Koh Lipe police station. The complaint claimed that the tourists were allegedly duped into buying a tour package to visit Koh Lipe from Thai Alfa Andaman Co via its Facebook page but they didn't get the services as advertised, Surachet said.
The police probe later found that up to 1,600 people (including the 44 plaintiffs) might have been victimised in the alleged fraud, resulting in damages worth Bt10 million, he said. To date, 200 people have stepped forwards to file fraud complaints, resulting in the arrest being issued.
One victim in her 30s, Benjaporn (last name withheld), recalled that she and four friends wanted to visit Koh Lipe. They found the tour company online with 150,000 “followers” and some 100 good “reviews” of services and so had bought a tour package for Bt7,990 with a “buy 1 get 1 free” promotion. The group paid about Bt20,000 in total for the March 23-25 visit, said the victim.
The group were picked up by a van at an airport and sent to a pier to board a ferry to the island and took in a diving session at Koh Khai, she said. Their hotel later told them that the company had not paid for their accommodation and they were therefore on the hook for paying from their own pockets, as well as the van and ferry fares, and diving service fee for a total Bt23,000. This meant they had paid Bt43,000 for the trip, she said.
They found another five groups totally 39 people who had a similar experience with the company.
Their inquiry to the company’s office received a reply that the company owner and executives had absconded and not paid their employees, she said. Thaworn told her by telephone that he was experiencing financial problems and so was asking customers to cover the expenses and he would pay them back, she said. After that, they lodged the police complaint.