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Sawasdee ! How are you doing ?

If you are driving a car, you will probably see many traffic or road signs. They provide information about how fast to go, which way to turn and whether a road ends or begins.

Languages also have signs that provide direction when speaking to others or writing. In English, we call these words “discourse markers.” Think of them as road signs for language.

The above information let's know about the usefull of road signs exactly. And you have to do every things that the signs

order every time when you drive on the road. That will make you safe yourself and others on the road together.

 Many thanks to Google Translate also.

 

FRANCE 24 Live – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/J78SdCzzumA

.................................................

 
 

The Road Signs of English

 

Everyday Grammar: The Road Signs of English
Everyday Grammar: The Road Signs of English
 
The Road Signs of English
 

If you are driving a car, you will probably see many traffic or road signs. They provide information about how fast to go, which way to turn and whether a road ends or begins.

Languages also have signs that provide direction when speaking to others or writing. In English, we call these words “discourse markers.” Think of them as road signs for language.

We use discourse markers to signal a beginning or end of a conversation, list the order of ideas, react to a speaker, change the subject and do other things.

In other Everyday Grammar programs, we talked about such markers as “you know,” “well” and “okay.” Today, we will examine a few uses of discourse markers in informal, natural speech.

Everyday, natural speech

Some are used only used in informal speech, while others are for formal writing and speech.

You hear and see informal markers in conversations, text messages, songs, classrooms and on broadcast programs and social media.

Let us hear how they sound in a short conversation between two friends. In the following exchange, you will hear the markers “hey,” “by the way,” “let’s see” and “so.” Think about the purpose of each one:

Hey, Tasha! How is it going?

Good! I haven’t seen you in weeks. How have you been?

Busy, but great! By the way, what are you doing tomorrow night?

Let me see. I am planning on voting tomorrow afternoon but will be free after that! What did you have in mind?

So, there is a book signing at Dream Bean coffee house tomorrow at 6 o’clock. Want to come?

That sounds great!

Did you catch the purpose of each?

The word “hey” is used to get the attention of the listener. In this case, it is also a very informal way of saying hello. English speakers use “by the way” and “so” to lead into a statement or question. But the words “by the way” inform the listener of a change in direction of the conversation. Lastly, the words “let’s see” show that the speaker is trying to remember something.

Just like signs on a road, discourse markers give us signals for our spoken and written language.
Just like signs on a road, discourse markers give us signals for our spoken and written language.

Use 1: starting a conversation

Now, let’s talk about four uses of discourse markers.

I just used one in the last sentence. Did you catch it?

It was the word “now.” We use it and other words and phrases to mark the start of a conversation or announce an idea. “Now” can introduce the idea or show a change in subject.

In Everyday Grammar programs, you have heard us use the markers “now,” “okay,” “so” and “alright.” These all tell the listener to pay attention because the speaker may offer a new piece of information.

Use 2: ending a conversation

Some of the same discourse markers are also used to end a conversation. For example, one might use the words “okay” or “alright” to inform the listener you will soon finish what you are saying. Take a listen:

Just saw your message. Alright, I’m late for a meeting. I will call you later. I have got to go!

Another word we often use is “anyway.” Here is the same example with that word:

Just saw your message. Anyway, I’m late for a meeting. I will call you later. I have got to go!

Use 3: changing the subject

Now, let’s turn to useful words and phrases for changing the subject. Notice I used “now” to move to another part of today’s subject.

You may have noticed the flexibility of some discourse markers. Some have more than one use. But be careful: Others do not.

“Anyway” is an example of a flexible marker. English speakers not only use it to suggest a conversation’s end. We also use it to signal that we will start talking about something else.

And, as you heard earlier, “by the way” is an effective phrase for quickly changing direction.

Another phrase is “That reminds me.” When someone has just said or done something that helps us remember something else, one might say, “That reminds me.”

Here is how it might be used:

Hey, do you know what the dinner special is?

Yeah, it’s teriyaki chicken.

Oh, that reminds me, I forgot to take the chicken out of my freezer!

Use 4: responding to speaker

Other discourse markers assure speakers that the listener is paying attention to what they are saying. They can show interest in, surprise at, excitement for or agreement with what the speaker is saying.

Words that show interest include “yeah” and “I see.” “Oh really” and “really” usually show surprise. And “exactly” and “right” show agreement. Here’s an example of a speaker showing agreement:

I hate riding the 43 bus! It is crowded and really stinks.

Exactly! That is why I take the train.

Okay, well, now that you have learned some road signs of the English language, we hope you will drive safely!

I’m Alice Bryant.

 

Alice Bryant wrote this story for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

______________________________________________________________

Reference

Start conversation         End conversation        Introduce idea   Change subject              Respond to speaker

Hey, so, well                 Alright, anyway, okay  Now, okay        By the way, that             Yeah, I see, really,

                                                                                          reminds me,                   oh really, exactly, right

                                                                                                                             

Words in This Story

 

discourse – n. the use of words to exchange thoughts and ideas

conversation – n. an informal talk between two people or a small group of people

informal – adj. relaxed in tone : not suited for serious or official speech and writing

o’clock – n. according to the clock

flexible – adj. able to change or to do different things

assure – v. to make something certain

introduce – v. to present something for discussion or consideration

....................................................

NEWS WORDS

News Words: Anonymous

In September, The New York Times newspaper published an opinion criticizing U.S. President Donald Trump. The anonymous opinion was written by a senior official in Trump’s government.

 ..................................................

 

Level 1 Stories

  • Emile Ratelband answers questions during an interview in Utrecht, Netherlands, Thursday, Nov. 8, 2018. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong)

    Man Wants to Legally Change His Age

 

November 8, 2018

4 hours ago
A look at the best news photos from around the world.

A procession for the body of Sheriff Sgt. Ron Helus, who was killed in a mass shooting at a Southern California bar, drives along Ventura Highway 101 in Thousand Oaks, California. Twelve people were killed by a gunman late Wednesday. Helus was immediately hit with numerous gunshots after going inside to confront the shooter, and he died after being taken to a hospital.
1A procession for the body of Sheriff Sgt. Ron Helus, who was killed in a mass shooting at a Southern California bar, drives along Ventura Highway 101 in Thousand Oaks, California. Twelve people were killed by a gunman late Wednesday. Helus was immediately hit with numerous gunshots after going inside to confront the shooter, and he died after being taken to a hospital.
A woman named Rana stands in front of an image of her rapist, whom she had described in great detail, on a street in Beirut, Lebanon. For years after she was raped, Rana's family and society blamed her — but she finally decided to go public and shame her rapist.
2A woman named Rana stands in front of an image of her rapist, whom she had described in great detail, on a street in Beirut, Lebanon. For years after she was raped, Rana's family and society blamed her — but she finally decided to go public and shame her rapist.
Riders perform during a freestyle motocross show at the EICMA exhibition motorcycle fair in Milan, Italy.
3Riders perform during a freestyle motocross show at the EICMA exhibition motorcycle fair in Milan, Italy.
A man walks his dogs through a brightly colored forest in Cuxhaven, Germany, Nov. 7, 2018.
4A man walks his dogs through a brightly colored forest in Cuxhaven, Germany, Nov. 7, 2018.

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BBC

Accessibility links

6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

Loneliness

EPISODE 181108 / 08 NOV 2018

 

Introduction

We all live in an over-crowded world which is fast approaching eight billion people. Despite that many individuals feel alone and isolated. The BBC made a survey about loneliness, involving 55,000 people from almost 240 different countries. Neil and Sam discuss the findings and teach you new vocabulary.

This week's question

Where is the most isolated inhabited place on the planet? That's the place furthest away from anywhere else with the fewest people living there. Is it:

a) McMurdo Station in Antarctica

b) Siwa Oasis in Egypt's Western Desert

c) The island of Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary

isolated
far away from other places and people

stereotype
a simplistic view of person or group based on certain characteristics such as nationality, age, profession

intensely
strongly

to be plagued by something
to be tormented by something; to have it causing you problems and difficulties

figure something out
try to understand something

to regulate
to control

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word for word transcript

Neil
Hello. Welcome to 6 Minute English, I'm Neil. 

Sam
And I'm Sam. 

Neil
And we are sitting here in New Broadcasting House, in the middle of London. Would you say, Sam, that this is an isolated place? 

Sam
Oh no, not at all. Isolated means far away from other places and people. 

Neil
Does that mean then, do you think, that you can't be lonely here, with all these people around and all these things to do? 

Sam
Ah, good question. Can you be lonely in a crowd? Yes, of course, I think you can be because being lonely isn't about physical isolation. I think you can be lonely anywhere if you feel that you are disconnected from the world around you, if you feel that no one understands you. If you are living happily in isolation in The Scottish Highlands, for example, I'm sure you could feel lonely if you came here to London. 

Neil
Well, loneliness is today's topic. The BBC has just completed a big survey about it which we will learn more about shortly. But first, of course, a question: Where is the most isolated inhabited place on the planet - by which I mean the place furthest away from anywhere else with the fewest people living there. Is it:

a) McMurdo Station in Antarctica

b) Siwa Oasis in Egypt's Western Desert, or is it

c) the island of Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic 

What do you think, Sam?

Sam
I've got absolutely no idea, so this is just a guess - I think it's the one in Antarctica. I'm going to go with that. 

Neil
Well, we'll have the answer later on in the programme. Loneliness is seen as a big problem for the mental health of the population, so much so that the British government has a minister for loneliness. But which age group suffers most from loneliness. Here is a BBC report about the research. 

James Gallagher, BBC Health and science correspondent
There is a common stereotype that loneliness affects only the old and the isolated. It does, but what this experiment also shows is that loneliness is felt throughout life. People aged between 16 and 24 experience loneliness more often and more intensely than any other age group. 

Neil
So according to the research, Sam, which section of society is most affected by loneliness? 

Sam
This might be a surprise, but it's 16 to 24 year olds. 

Neil
I was surprised by that because like many, I would've guessed that it was older people. 

Sam
The reporter did say that that was a stereotype. A stereotype is nothing to do with stereo music, but it's the noun we use to describe a very simple and basic judgement of someone and their character and personality based on their age, nationality, profession and so on. So a stereotype of British people is that we can't cook, we have bad teeth, we are very reserved and never say what we mean. 

Neil
I don't know what you mean, my cooking is wonderful, Sam. And the stereotype is that old people get lonely. 

Sam
Much like the stereotypes of British people, this may be true in some cases - I've eaten some of your home-cooked meals remember, Neil - but it's not true for the majority. It is young people who feel lonely more often and more intenselyIntensely heremeans strongly. The feeling of loneliness is stronger in young people than older people. 

Neil
The reporter goes on to give some explanation for why young people might be more lonely. 

James Gallagher, BBC Health and science correspondent
Researchers from the University of Manchester who analysed the data, suggested feeling lonely may plague the young because it's a time of identity change. Figuring out your place in the world and of learning to regulate emotions. 

Neil
He says that feeling lonely may plague young people, what does he mean there? 

Sam
If you are plagued by something, it means that it troubles you, it bothers you and not just once, it's something that happens continually or repeatedly. 

Neil
And he says this may be because at that age we are still figuring out our place in the world. We are trying to understand the world and what we are supposed to do with our lives. 

Sam
He also suggests that younger people have not yet learned how to regulate their emotions, which is another way of saying to control their emotions. 

Neil
Right. Time to review this week's vocabulary, but before that let's have the answer to the quiz. I asked: Where is the most isolated inhabited place on the planet? Is it:

a) McMurdo Station in Antarctica

b) Siwa Oasis in Egypt's Western Desert or

c) the island of Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic 

What did you say, Sam? 

Sam
I said a).

Neil
Well, I'm afraid to say the answer is actually c) the island of Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic. It has a population of fewer than 300 and it's only accessible by a 6-day voyage by ship from South Africa. 

Sam
So not a popular place for a weekend break! 

Neil
Indeed not. Now it's time for a recap of our vocabulary. The first word was isolated which Tristan da Cunha certainly is. It means far away from other place and people. 

Sam
Then there was stereotype the noun for a simplistic view of person or group based on their nationality, age, profession and the like. 

Neil
Intensely
 means strongly. 

Sam
Being plagued by something means it causes you problems and difficulties. 

Neil
If you are trying to figure something out, you are trying to understand it. 

Sam
And to regulate something means to control it. 

Neil
Well, sadly, that's the end of the programme. Hopefully you won't feel too lonely without us, remember we are always here on Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, our App and of course the website bbclearningenglish.com. See you soon. Goodbye.  

Sam
Bye!

......................................................
 
FINISHED
 
November 9. 2018 
 
 


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