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The Songkran fest arrived! The news report that there is water splashing, the Songkran playing, in some embassies

in Thailand also.

Moreover, many provinces are ready for it right now. But it may lack of water, except the elephants. Caused people

to have played with a little amount of water.

 Many thanks to Google Translate and G Grammarly again today.

 

 

 Let us join, too.

FRANCE 24 Live – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/O8yyiEfHIRA

.............................................

 

The Word 'Which' in the News

3 hours ago

 

Imagine you open an American travel magazine. Perhaps you want to read about other countries and the must-see places to visit in them. Or perhaps you just want to improve your understanding of English.

Imagine you read the following sentence:

"The region is still relatively undiscovered, which means unspoiled beaches and affordable prices even in the medieval walled city of Dubrovnik."*

You might read this sentence, and start to think about the word which. It appears a lot in English language publications. What exactly is the purpose of which?

Today on Everyday Grammar, we will explore that question. We will look at one use of the word: to introduce a kind of adjective clause known as a "sentence relative."

Definitions

First, we probably should start with a few definitions.

A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb.

Some clauses are called dependent. In other words, they depend on other parts of the sentence. They cannot stand alone.

One kind of dependent clause is the adjective clause. It gives more information about a noun. Adjective clauses usually modify, or change the meaning of, the noun that they follow.

Here is an example:

Chicago, which is in the American state of Illinois, is famous for its pizza.

Here, the adjective clause is "which is in the American state of Illinois." It modifies the noun Chicago.

 Yet some adjective clauses do not just modify a noun. They comment on the whole idea in the earlier, or preceding, clause. These adjective clauses are called sentence relatives. They always use the word which.

Here is an example:

He did not study, which means he is going to fail the test.

In this sentence, the main idea is "he did not study." What comes after the main idea – the words "which means he is going to fail the test" – is the speaker's interpretation, or understanding of events.

Sentence Relatives and Newswriting

You might be asking yourself how this issue relates to newswriting.

In newswriting, the most common purpose of a sentence relative is to report direct speech. In other words, the reporter is repeating the exact words that a person said.

Here is an example from The Chronicle of Higher Education. It explains the life of a man, Mister Vaidya, who grew up in many countries. Here is what he said:

"My wife thinks I have no roots, which is probably accurate." **

Here, the main idea is about the wife's opinion. The sentence relative explains the speaker's interpretation of his wife's opinion. In other words, he agrees with what she thinks.

Now you might understand why sentence relatives are common in the news. They show how Americans speak in everyday situations. You can read more about that subject in another Everyday Grammar program. It is called Sentence Relatives: Showing Feeling, Interpreting Information

Other uses of Sentence Relatives

At times, reporters use sentence relatives for a different purpose: to interpret information.

Here is an example from a sports story. The article, from Bleacher Report, gives information about Bayern Munich star Robert Lewandowski.

"There's also the fact he [Lewandowski] has a contract at the Allianz Arena running until the summer of 2021, which means it's likely he'll spend at least the next three-and-a-half years on the continent before an MLS move would be plausible."

In this example, the writer is interpreting information about Lewandowski's deal. The first part of the sentence is about a fact: He already is on the team. The second part of the sentence, everything after the word which, gives the reporter's interpretation of the fact.

You will see sentence relatives in many kinds of stories. Here is an example from a report on climate change. It was published in Time magazine. The author, Michael D. Lemonick, wrote the following line:

"No computer climate model anticipated that increase, which means that all current predictions about how much [the] sea level could rise… are too low and will have to be revised upward."

Closing thoughts

Think back to the travel magazine example that we gave at the beginning of our program.

"The region is still relatively undiscovered, which means unspoiled beaches and affordable prices even in the medieval walled city of Dubrovnik."

Now you know that the author was using the word which to introduce a sentence relative. In other words, the author was interpreting the idea "the region is still relatively undiscovered."

The next time you are reading a news story, try to find examples of sentence relatives. Ask yourself in what situations you see them used, and try to keep a list. With time and training, you will be able to recognize them and use them without difficulty.

A word of warning. Sentence relatives are acceptable in speaking and in newswriting and in fiction writing. However, you might not want to use them in other kinds of writing.

Betty Azar, a grammar expert, says that sentence relatives are generally not used in some kinds of formal writing, such as academic writing. In those cases, writers often use different grammatical structures and vocabulary words.

And that's Everyday Grammar.

I'm John Russell.

And I'm Ashley Thompson.

And I'm Dorothy Gundy.

 

**Lisa McLaughlin. What to Watch For In 2006. Time Magazine (2006/01/09).

John Russell wrote this story for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

_______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

unspoiled – adj. still wild and not changed by people : not spoiled

interpretation – n. the act or result of explaining or interpreting something : the way something is explained or understood

plausible – adj. possibly true : believable or realistic

appropriate – adj. right or suited for some purpose or situation

...............................................

April 11, 2019

April 11, 2019
A look at the best news photos from around the world.

Sudanese demonstrators hold their national flag on top of a building in Khartoum after the country's defense minister said that President Omar al-Bashir had been detained
1Sudanese demonstrators hold their national flag on top of a building in Khartoum after the country's defense minister said that President Omar al-Bashir had been detained "in a safe place" and that a military council would temporarily run the country for two years.
Members of the Ecuadrean National Assembly show signs reading
2Members of the Ecuadrean National Assembly show signs reading "We are all Assange" as Ecuadorean Minister of Foreign Affairs Jose Valencia (out of frame) speaks in Quito. President Lenin Moreno's government withdrew the Ecuadoran citizenship offered to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange before his arrest in London.
A South African Police Services member reacts after being hit by a rock during a demonstration of Gomora informal settlement community members to protest the lack of service delivery or basic necessities, housing difficulties and lack of public road maintenance in Pretoria.
3A South African Police Services member reacts after being hit by a rock during a demonstration of Gomora informal settlement community members to protest the lack of service delivery or basic necessities, housing difficulties and lack of public road maintenance in Pretoria.
Elephants and people play with water as part of celebrations for the water festival of Songkran, which marks the start of the Thai New Year in Ayutthaya, Thailand.
4Elephants and people play with water as part of celebrations for the water festival of Songkran, which marks the start of the Thai New Year in Ayutthaya, Thailand.

Load more

.................................................
 
 
6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

The decluttering trend

EPISODE 190411 / 11 APR 201

Introduction

Do you have too much stuff? If so, you're not alone. These days people tend to buy and keep more things than they used to. But what do we do with it all once we've had enough of it? Recently, people have been trying to find ways to reduce the amount of stuff that they own. Rob and Neil find out all about the latest decluttering trend, how to do it and why in this 6 Minute English programme!

This week's question

The vacuum cleaner is a machine we use to clean our houses. When were the first mechanical floor cleaners, which later became vacuum cleaners, invented? Was it:

a) the 1860s?

b) the 1890s? Or

c) the 1920s?

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary

floordrobe
collection of clothes untidily kept on the floor rather than in a wardrobe.

clutter
untidiness caused by having too many things – to declutter is the process of getting rid of things

to tackle (a problem)
to deal with a problem and try to fix it

sentimental
with an emotional and/or nostalgic connection

shift
change

make do and mend
an expression that means to use what you’ve got and fix something if it breaks rather than buying new things

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word for word transcript

Rob
Hello. This is 6 Minute English. I'm Rob.

Neil
And I'm Neil.

Rob
Now, Neil, are you a tidy person?

Neil
Me? Oh dear no! You should see my floordrobe!

Rob
Your floordrobe?

Neil
Yes. Tidy people keep their clothes in a wardrobe. I just dump a lot of my clothes on the floor, so – a floordrobe.

Rob
Ah yes, well it sounds as if you could use a bit of declutteringClutter is the word for general mess and untidiness when you have too many things, too much stuff. These days the idea of decluttering is very popular.

Neil
Oh, I love a good declutter - trouble is, I hate throwing things away.

Rob
Well, we might have some advice for you in today’s programme. But first, a question. It’s about cleaning up. The vacuum cleaner is a machine we use to clean our houses. When were the first mechanical floor cleaners, which later became vacuum cleaners, invented? Was it:

A) the 1860s?

B) the 1890s? Or

C) the 1920s?

Neil
Well, you know what? I have no idea! So, I’ll say the 1890s.

Rob
OK, well, I’ll have the answer later in the programme. The decluttering techniques of Marie Kondo are very popular these days. A UK decluttering expert, Lesley Spellman, appeared on the BBC radio programme You and Yours to discuss the topic. She was asked to describe the basics of the Marie Kondo method. What’s the first thing she recommends people start with?

Lesley Spellman
She basically says you have to do things in a certain order. You have to start with your clothes. Then you move on to your books. Then you move on to paperwork. Then you go on to something called 'komono', which is kind of everything else: kitchens, bathrooms, garages, lofts etc. And then finally you tackle sentimental things.

Rob
She says that you have to start with your clothes before moving on through different categories of clutter.

Neil
The verb she uses for dealing with these things is to tackleTo tackle something means 'to deal with it, to sort it out'.

Rob
And the last things she says you need to tackle are sentimental things. These are things that you have an emotional connection to, such as old letters and photographs. I have to say those are the things I find most difficult to get rid of! I’m very sentimental like that.

Neil
I think you just have to be ruthless, Rob! Either that or buy a bigger house. Right, let’s listen to Lesley Spellman again.

Lesley Spellman
She basically says you have to do things in a certain order. You have to start with your clothes. Then you move on to your books. Then you move on to paperwork. Then you go on to something called 'komono', which is kind of everything else: kitchens, bathrooms, garages, lofts etc. And then finally you tackle sentimental things.

Rob
So why is it that decluttering is such big business these days, and there are many people and companies offering advice and services? Here’s Lesley Spellman again with her thoughts on this.

Lesley Spellman
I think there's been a big shift really. So my generation, my parents, you know, definitely came from that 'make do and mend' era post war in the sort of 20th century. And then all of a sudden people started to get a little bit more money. Things became more affordable. You can buy five tops for five pounds each and people have done that. And that's allowed the consumerism to kind of go crazy in the 21st century.

Rob
So what does she put our need for decluttering down to?

Neil
Well, first she says that there has been a shift in our behaviour. This is a way of saying that there has been a change in the way we behave. We used to make do and mendmuch more. This phrase means that we made full use of what we had and if something broke, we tried to fix it.

Rob
And these days, we seem to have more money and many goods have got cheaper, and we just like buying stuff – or as she says, consumerism has gone crazy. Let’s listen to her again.

Lesley Spellman
I think there's been a big shift really. So my generation, my parents, you know, definitely came from that 'make do and mend' era post war in the sort of 20th century. And then all of a sudden people started to get a little bit more money. Things became more affordable. You can buy five tops for five pounds each and people have done that. And that's allowed the consumerism to kind of go crazy in the 21st century.

Rob
Time to tidy up today’s vocabulary, but first, let’s have the answer to the question. Earlier I asked you: When were the first mechanical floor cleaners invented? Was it in:

A) the 1860s?

B) the 1890s? Or

C) the 1920s?

And Neil, you said?

Neil
I guessed at the 1890s.

Rob
Sadly not! The correct answer is the 1860s. So, well done anyone who got that right. Now on with today’s vocabulary . The first word we had was floordrobe.

Neil
Yes, this is a word to describe a pile of clothes that someone keeps on the floor rather than in a wardrobe.

Rob
Well I don’t have a floordrobe, but I do have a chairdrobe – I guess you can work out what that means! Anyway, it seems we both have too much clutter, which is the untidiness caused by having too many things.

Neil
And this leads us to the popular pastime of decluttering, which is throwing away things to make our homes neat and tidy.

Rob
Clutter, in my life, is an issue I haven’t tackled yet. I haven’t tried to fix it or sort it out.

Neil
One area that the experts say you need to tackle is sentimental things. These are things which you have an emotional connection to – maybe old letters and photographs for example.

Rob
We then looked at the word shift, which was a way of saying 'change'. There has been a shift or a change in the way we think about things.

Neil
Yes, rather than an attitude of make do and mend, which means an attitude of 'being content with what you’ve got and fixing things if they break', we have become part of a consumerist culture where we like to buy more and more stuff.

Rob
But we still find it hard to throw things away!

Neil
Yes, indeed, we do. Well it’s time for us to collect our scripts and declutter the studio. We look forward to your company next time and until then you can find us in all the usual places online and on social media, just look for BBC Learning English. Bye for now.

Rob
Bye-bye! 

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    ................................................

     

    File photo
    File photo

    Temperatures reach 42°C in Tak and Lampang

    national April 12, 2019 08:00

    By The Nation

    As the temperature rose to 42°C in Lampang and Tak, several other provinces cited 41-40°C on Thursday morning, the Thai Meteorological Department warned residents in the north, northeast, centre and east of very hot weather with possible storms during April 13-17.

    People must beware of stormy weather and gusty wind and stay away from big trees and unsecured billboards, the agency said.

    At 5am the temperature was forecast for Loei and Kanchanaburi at 41°C while Mae Hong Son, Nan, Phetchabun, Khon Kaen, Nakhon Ratchasima, Ubon Ratchathani and Nakhon Sawan were set for 40°C.

     

    Photo: Tourism Authority of Thailand
    Photo: Tourism Authority of Thailand

    Your guide to the Songkran Festival

    Travel log April 04, 2019 10:29

    Songkran Festival is an event where boisterous fun and ancient traditions go hand-in-hand. For tourists, the event offers a chance to enjoy a huge celebration where water parties break out in the streets of Thailand’s towns and villages. For locals, it is a time when they can spend precious moments with their families and visit temples to observe ancient rites and make merit.

    Some of the best locations to celebrate Songkran are Bangkok, Pattaya, Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen and Hat Yai.

    For the Songkran Festival 2019, the Tourism Authority of Thailand is organising celebrations in three emerging tourist destinations – Tak, Mukdahan and Ranong – and is supporting activities in eight other provinces (Bangkok, Samut Prakan, Sukhothai, Chiang Mai, Lampang, Ayutthaya, Phuket and Songkhla).

    Here’s a round-up of Songkran Festivals organised and supported by the TAT.

    Songkran in Tak, Mukdahan and Ranong

    Amazing Songkran 2019 @ Tak

    Scheduled from April 12 to 14 at Wat Thai Wattanaram and Naresuan Maharaj Stadium in Mae Sot district, the event celebrates the time-honoured traditions of the Thai Yai ethnic group and the Thai people, with traditional activities including purifying a Buddha image, sand pagoda building and a colourful parade. Other activities are cultural and music performances, a water tunnel display, a folk village, a food fair and local art and craft workshops.

    Muk-Savan Fun & Fin Festival 2019, Mukdahan

    Taking place from April 12-16 at Hat Manopirom, Wan Yai district, the event is focused on the theme of ‘Cool Isan’ with a water tunnel and displays, an umbrella tunnel, and a five-region sand pagoda zone as well as a ‘Sand Art Contest.’ The opening ceremony and stage performance is scheduled on April 13.

    Mineral Water and Songkran Festival 2019, Ranong

    Taking place from April 13-15 at the multi-purpose ground in front of the Mueang Ranong Municipal Office, the event places emphasis on Ranong’s unique local culture with a colourful twist. Highlights include a traditional Songkran parade, an exhibition on the 12 Zodiac signs, and a food fair with 20 booths of rare indigenous food items. There’s an LED-decorated water tunnel display to welcome visitors to various other activities unique to the area including cooking shows, traditional dances, and music performances.

    Songkran in Bangkok, Samut Prakan, Sukhothai, Chiang Mai, Lampang, Ayutthaya, Phuket and Songkhla

    Songkran in Bangkok

    • Songkran Wisutkasat (April 13-15) on Wisutkasat Road, Under the Rama VIII Bridge. This year marks the 77th anniversary of Songkran Wisutkasat, best known for being the origin of the Miss Songkran Beauty contest in Thailand, with several other cultural activities, including merit making, purifying Buddha image, paying respect to the elders, and a colourful parade. One special activity for this year is free entry to the Bank of Thailand Museum (Bangkhunprom Palace).
    • Songkran Siam Square (April 13-15). This year’s event promotes “Pha Khao Ma” (Thai men’s multi-purpose loincloth) and a ‘safe Songkran’ theme, with cultural activities including purifying Buddha images from four ASEAN countries, cultural and music performances, folk market and water-based fun. Tourists and locals are encouraged to celebrate the festival without chalk powder (din sor pong), alcoholic drinks or wearing revealing clothes.

    Songkran Phra Pradaeng 2019 (April 19-21) at the Phra Pradaeng City Hall. Phra Pradaeng is where the local people observe Mon ceremonies in a traditional way, and their New Year traditions are very different to those found in the rest of Thailand. For a start, the celebrations here take place a little later, and feature a range of cultural activities including a spectacular floral procession, a parade of the local Mon people in their colourful traditional outfits, a Miss Songkran parade and Mister and Miss Songkran Beauty Contest. Visitors will also have the chance to join merit-making activities in the local temples, pay respect to community elders and enjoy folk plays and cultural performances.

    Sukhothai Songkran 2019

    • Thai Puan’s Elephant Ordination Tradition, Ban Hat Siew (April 7) at Wat Hat Siew in Si Satchanalai district. Held annually for over 175 years, this is an ancient ordination ceremony that all local men must become monks for at least seven days and every year, the ordinations take place on this date. The men prepared in the traditional way are taken to the temples on elephants while wearing local headgear. This ritual is based upon the tale of “Phra Vessandara Chadok” one of the Lord Buddha’s former incarnations. Most of the men leave the temples on Songkran day on April 15 to enjoy New Year with their families.
    • Song Nam – Oi Tan Ceremony, Songkran Si Satchanalai (April 8-12) at the Monument of Phra Mahathammaracha I (Lithai) in Si Satchanalai district. Oi Tan, is a phrase that means to make a donation and relates to the good morals of the people of Sukhothai. The highlight is a procession to pay respects to Phra Maha Thammaracha I, who was king of Sukhothai from 1347 to 1368. Other highlights include cultural parades from the 10 local communities, Lady Oi Tan beauty competition, a food fair and music performance.
    • Songkran and Sawankhalok Food Festival (April 11-15) at the Public Health Park in Sawankhalok district. Here visitors can Song Nam Phraor purifying the three highly-revered Buddha images from the three most important temples of the district, including Wat Sawang Arom Worawihan, Wat Sankaram, and Wat Klong Krajong. Other highlights are a local food fair and a chance to ‘check-in’ at the newly-created ‘Pop Culture’ street art created by famous ASEAN artists.
    • Retro Songkran Splendours, Sukhothai (April 12-14) at Sukhothai Historical Park. Celebrating the ancient city’s status as the cradle of Thai civilization, visitors can embrace the old-style features of the event with traditional costumes and age-old games, parades and merit making. One of the most popular events is the sand pagoda building contest in which families compete to make stunning designs.
    • Flowery Shirt Songkran on Khao Tok Road, Sukhothai (April 12-15) at the Sukhothai city and Sukhothai public park. Tourists and locals are invited to wear colourful Hawaiian-style shirts, which have become a firm Songkran tradition. Highlights include a float procession and the chance to pay respects to the Buddha images, water fun, retro Thai circle dance activities and beauty contests.
    • Hae Nam Kuen Hong Ceremony and Chao Muen Dong Bathing Rite (April 17-19) at the Monument of Chao Muen Dong, Ban Toek sub-district in Si Satchanalai district. Activities include a sacred ceremony to pay respect to the Buddha image of Chao Muen Dong at Ban Toek, folk plays and a procession of elephants as well as cultural parades from 14 local communities. Water-based activities can be enjoyed at Ban Toek-Ban Na Ton Chan tourism communities.

    Paweni Pi Mai Muang, Chiang Mai (April 12-16).

    Salung Luang Songkran Festival, Lampang (April 9 – 13) at Khelang Nakorn Park on Tha Kraw Noi Road. Enjoy a huge parade called the Salung Luang procession as well as the Miss and Mister Songkran Contests, floral horse-drawn carriages competitions, cultural shows and a many local performances.

    Ayutthaya Songkran Festival 2019

    • Songkran at the Ancient Capital (April 13-15) along the Sri Sanphet Road in front of the TAT Ayutthaya Office. Celebrate Songkran in the most unusual exotic way – water splashing with the elephants in the environs of the UNESCO World Heritage site of Ayutthaya Historical Park and the chance to enjoy the traditional Thai circle dances with the locals.
    • Mon Songkran (April 14) at Wat Thong Bo, Bang Pa-In district. The Mon people have their own traditions when it comes to celebrating Songkran and many of these can be seen in the Bang Pa-in district of Ayutthaya where a range of activities take place around the temple of Wat Thong Bo. These include merit making, bathing of the local Buddha images and cultural parade.

    Phuket Songkran Festival 2019

    • The Water Festival on the Beach (April 11-13) at Patong Beach.
    • Songkran No Alcohol (April 13) at Limelight Avenue Mall.
    • Water Festival 2019 (April 14-15) at Dibuk Road.

    Hat Yai Midnight Songkran 2019 (April 12-15) on the streets of Nipat Uthit 3, Sanehanusorn and Thammanoon Vithi. Cultural activities include a Buddha image parade, purifying Buddha image and local folk plays. Others are beauty contests, Muay Talay sea boxing matches, music concerts and the Songkran Carnival parade.

    Songkran is a time when family comes first, respect is paid to seniors and people visit the temples to take part in age-old ceremonies. Visitors will get more out of Songkran if they take the time to understand its origins and its traditions. Above all, have an enjoyable and safe time for Thailand’s New Year celebrations.

 ....................................................
 
FINISHED
 
April 12, 2019
 
 


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กฎกติกาการเขียนเรื่องและแสดงความคิดเห็น
1 การเขียน หรือแสดงความคิดเห็นใด ๆ ต้องไม่หมิ่นเหม่ หรือกระทบต่อสถาบันชาติ ศาสนา และพระมหากษัตริย์ หรือกระทบต่อความมั่นคงของชาติ
2. ไม่ใช้ถ้อยคำหยาบคาย ดูหมิ่น ส่อเสียด ให้ร้ายผู้อื่นในทางเสียหาย หรือสร้างความแตกแยกในสังคม กับทั้งไม่มีภาพ วิดีโอคลิป หรือถ้อยคำลามก อนาจาร
3. ความขัดแย้งส่วนตัวที่เกิดจากการเขียนเรื่อง แสดงความคิดเห็น หรือในกล่องรับส่งข้อความ (หลังไมค์) ต้องไม่นำมาโพสหรือขยายความต่อในบล็อก และการโพสเรื่องส่วนตัว และการแสดงความคิดเห็น ต้องใช้ภาษาที่สุภาพเท่านั้น
4. พิจารณาเนื้อหาที่จะโพสก่อนเผยแพร่ให้รอบคอบ ว่าจะไม่เป็นการละเมิดกฎหมายใดใด และปิดคอมเมนต์หากจำเป็นโดยเฉพาะเรื่องที่มีเนื้อหาพาดพิงสถาบัน
5.การนำเรื่อง ภาพ หรือคลิปวิดีโอ ที่มิใช่ของตนเองมาลงในบล็อก ควรอ้างอิงแหล่งที่มา และ หลีกเลี่ยงการเผยแพร่สิ่งที่ละเมิดลิขสิทธิ์ ไม่ว่าจะเป็นรูปแบบหรือวิธีการใดก็ตาม 6. เนื้อหาและความคิดเห็นในบล็อก ไม่เกี่ยวข้องกับทีมงานผู้ดำเนินการจัดทำเว็บไซต์ โดยถือเป็นความรับผิดชอบทางกฎหมายเป็นการส่วนตัวของสมาชิก
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OKnation ขอสงวนสิทธิ์ในการปิดบล็อก ลบเนื้อหาและความคิดเห็น ที่ขัดต่อความดังกล่าวข้างต้น โดยไม่ต้องชี้แจงเหตุผลใดๆ ต่อเจ้าของบล็อกและเจ้าของความคิดเห็นนั้นๆ
   

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