The 1972 film “The Godfather” is one of the most famous movies ever made. It tells the story of a make-believe organized crime family: the Corleone family. Its leader is Don Corleone, played by Marlon Brando. In the film, he says the following line:
I'm gonna make him an offer he can't refuse.
Today on Everyday Grammar, we will examine this threatening statement. Specifically, we will look at verbs with two objects.
Yes, even the fictional head of an organized crime family can teach you about English grammar!
Subjects, Verbs, and Objects
First, we begin the program with a few definitions. Most sentences in English have a subject and a verb. For example, in the sentence "The man laughed," the subject is the term "the man" and the verb is the word "laughed."
Some sentences have subjects, verbs, and objects. The subjects and objects are usually nouns or pronouns.
Consider the sentence "She kicked the ball." The subject is the pronoun "she," and the object is "the ball." In this case, we refer to the ball as the direct object because it is receiving the action of the verb kick.
It is easy to find examples of these kinds of sentences in American movies. Consider the following exchange from the film “A Few Good Men.”
Colonel Nathan Jessep: You want answers?!
Lieutenant Dan Kaffee: I want the truth!
Colonel Jessep: You can't handle the truth!
Each of the sentences that you heard followed the same verb + object pattern. Notice that in each sentence, the verb has an object – what we call the direct object.
Now, let's look at sentences with two objects.
Verbs with Two Objects
Pattern #1 Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object
Many verbs have two objects – a direct object and an indirect object.
Many of the most common verbs in English can be found with two objects. Examples include the verbs make, bring, and take.
Think back to Don Corleone's statement.
I'm gonna make him an offer he can't refuse.
"I’m gonna" is one way of saying "I will." The verb "make" has two objects: the direct object, "an offer that he can't refuse," and the indirect object, "him."
The "he can't refuse" part of the sentence is a relative clause. It is modifying, or changing the meaning, of the noun "an offer." We discussed relative clauses in an earlier Everyday Grammar story.
Remember, the direct object is the thing affected by the action of the verb, and the indirect object shows the person who received the action.
The basic grammatical pattern we have discussed is:
Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object
Other examples might include simple statements, such as:
He made me a promise.
Here, the verb is "made," the indirect object is "me," and the direct object is "a promise."
In the sentences that we just talked about, the indirect object comes first. But sometimes the indirect object comes second. When this happens, English speakers generally use the words to or for before the indirect object.
Listen to this example:
I sent money to my family.
The direct object is "money," then comes the word "to," then the indirect object, "my family."
The basic pattern is this:
Verb + Direct Object + to/for + Indirect Object
Think back to our sentence from The Godfather: "I will make him an offer that he can't refuse."
If we changed the positions of the objects, the sentence would not really work.
Don Corleone could have said, "I will make an offer to him."
This statement, however, carries a different style. It doesn't sound nearly as threatening, for one.
Today, we showed you different patterns for how speakers use verbs with two objects. Specifically, we studied two ways in which speakers use sentences that have two objects.
You can begin practicing by finding sentences that have two objects – a direct object and an indirect object. Ask yourself where the objects appear in the sentence, and be sure to make note of your findings. With time, and with practice, you will begin to use sentences with two objects with no trouble at all.
And that's Everyday Grammar.
I'm John Russell.
And I'm Ashley Thompson
John Russell wrote this story for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.
Do You Know the Differences Between Look, Watch, and See?
April 19, 2019
Ask a Teacher
In today’s Ask a Teacher, our reader Hoang asks:
Question: What is the proper use of look, watch and see?
Answer: Hello, Hoang!
You are asking about the differences between three words which describe what we do with our eyes. I can help.
The Merriam Webster Learners’ Dictionary says the differences are related to your action and attention.
“See” means to notice or become aware of someone or something by using your eyes.
“Look” means to direct your eyes in a particular direction.
“Watch” means to look at someone or something for an amount of time and pay attention to what is happening.
Two of these verbs can also act as nouns, but today I will talk about the three words as verbs.
So, let me tell you a little more about each verb.
I will start with the verb “watch.” At a coffee shop, a friend may say,
I’m going outside for a minute. Would you please watch my bag?
The friend wants you to pay attention to the bag for a period of time.
Films, performances, games and people all are things you can watch.
In this case, the verb has an object - the bag. You can also use this verb without an object, as in this conversation:
Do you want to play basketball with us?
No, I’ll just watch.
The verb “look” is different from “watch.” When you look at someone or something, you simply direct your eyes at that person or thing. It can be for a short time, and it might not involve much thought.
One other difference between the words “watch” and “look” is that “look” is often followed by an adverb or preposition.
When you dance, don't look down.
She looked at the bill before she paid it.
You do not need to use a preposition or an adverb with the verb “see.” Sentences with “see” may have an object, or they may not.
With an object - I see a cat in the window.
Without an object - It will rain today - just wait and see.
Are you paying attention?
If you are talking about something that your eyes simply observe, you can use “see.”
If you are directing your eyes at something, use “look.”
And if you are paying attention to something, like a game or television program, for a period of time use “watch.”
I hope this helps you use "look,” “watch” and “see!"
And that’s Ask a Teacher!
I’m Jill Robbins.
Dr. Jill Robbins wrote this story for Learning English. Mario Ritter was the editor.
Despite what Neil's been told, comfortable shoes, such as trainers, are considered more acceptable these days than ever before. This is because more and more people are wearing them. But what has caused this rise in popularity? Has it happened suddenly, or over time? And is Neil wearing high heels? Find out and everything and learn the related vocabulary.
This week's question
Which famous sports clothing company's first pair of running shoes was inspired by the square pattern on a waffle-making machine? Was it:
b) Nike, or
Listen to the programme to find out the answer.
comfy (informal) comfortable
casualisation The process of becoming less formal and more relaxed, more casual
streetwear a style of casual clothing especially worn by young people from urban settings
filter through appear or happen gradually over time
the state of being healthy
knobbly lumpy; having many raised areas on the surface
Note: This is not a word for word transcript
Dan Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Dan.
Neil Let me just sit down. Ah! And I'm Neil.
Dan Neil, are you wearing high heels?
Neil Hang on. Ah! Not any more!
Dan How did they feel?
Neil Agony! How do women do this?
Dan Why on earth are you wearing them?
Neil Well, I wanted to look fashionable and cool! Everyone knows that high heels are the height of fashion – on the street, at work, and at parties. I'm ready for anything!
Dan I'm not so sure you're right there, Neil. Our topic for this 6 Minute English is about the rise in popularity of the comfy shoe. However, before we step into that, let's have our quiz question. Which famous sports clothing company's first pair of running shoes was inspired by the square pattern on a waffle-making machine? Was it:
b) Nike, or
Neil Well, I have no idea, so I'm going to say Adidas because that's got marks.
Dan We'll have to wait until later to find out. So, what do you think of when I say comfy shoes?
Neil Well, comfy is an adjective which is an informal way of saying 'comfortable'. So, I suppose we're talking trainers. But I was always told that trainers weren't appropriate for everywhere, like work and many formal or social places, such as parties, bars, and clubs.
Dan Well, that certainly used to be the case, but that may not be as true anymore. Victoria Moss is the Senior Fashion Editor at the Telegraph newspaper in the UK. Here she is speaking on BBC Radio 4's Woman's Hour about why trainers are considered more fashionable these days. Is it something that's happened very recently?
Victoria Moss Well, I think it's been, sort of, coming on for a while. And I think one thing in fashion in the last 10 years has been a, sort of, mass casualisation of everything. And there's been a big streetwear trend, which has filteredthrough.
Dan So, is it something that's happened very recently?
Neil Apparently not, no. She said that there has been mass casualisation of things over the last 10 years. Casualisation here means 'the process of becoming less formal and more relaxed' – 'more casual'.
Dan Yes! Society has relaxed its idea of what is considered formal or appropriate. In addition, we're told there has been a big streetwear trend. Streetwear is a style of casual clothing worn especially by young people from urban settings – that's the city.
Neil This trend has filteredthrough. If something filtersthrough, it appears or happens gradually over time.
Dan So, presumably, the trend for streetwearfilteredthrough from its specialised area into mainstream fashion until everyone was following it.
Neil Well, that explains why trainers are more fashionable these days, but it doesn't explain why people are wearing them more. Not everyone follows fashion, you know.
Dan Yes, Neil I can see that when I look at you. But you're forgetting the comfy part. Emma Supple is a podiatrist – a foot doctor - who also spoke on Woman's Hour. Here she is explaining why being comfy is so important. What are people doing more these days that they weren't before?
Emma Supple So what we're actually talking about is, actually, people, for wellness walking more and doing more… and they're not going to do that in a lot of high heels… so trainers are changing the materials. There are now a lot of fabric trainers and if you've inherited foot problems, then that kind of fabric… they're wrapping around knobbly bits, and knobbly bits hurt.
Dan What are people doing more?
Neil They're walking more and they're doing it for wellness. Wellness is the state of being healthy.
Dan As a result, trainers have had to change their materials to fabric to make themselves more comfortable.
Neil Not only that, but if you have any foot problems, these fabric, or cloth, trainers are better at fitting to the shape of your foot. That means if you have any knobbly bits, they won't hurt as much, which makes trainers more comfortable for everyone!
Dan Knobbly is an adjective that means 'lumpy' – 'having many raised areas on the surface'.
Neil So, it's the combination of a change in fashion and a change in materials that's made trainers and other comfy shoes more popular than ever, right?
Dan Exactly! And hard on the heels of that revelation, we can reveal the answer to our quiz question. Earlier I asked which famous sports clothing company's first pair of running shoes was inspired by the square pattern on a waffle-making machine. Was it:
b) Nike, or
Neil, you said?
Neil I said Adidas
Dan Sorry. The answer is Nike. In 1971 their co-founder Bill Bowerman was having breakfast when he saw the waffle machine and it inspired the design of Nike's first running shoe. Let's hope it was comfy one.
Neil Aha! It must be time to review our vocabulary! So, first, we had comfy – an adjective which is an informal way of saying 'comfortable'.
Dan Then we had casualisation. This describes the process of things, such as fashion or behaviour, becoming less formal and more casual.
Neil Next was streetwear. That describes a style of casual clothing that is worn especially by young people who live in cities.
Dan Then we heard filtered through. If something filters through, it appears or happens gradually over time. For example, has it filtered through to you yet, Neil, that high heels were a mistake?
Neil Yes, it has! They didn't do anything for my wellness, I can tell you, which means' the state of being healthy'.
Dan And lastly, we had knobbly. This adjective means 'lumpy' or 'having many raised areas on the surface' - like skin when it gets cold. Do you have anything knobbly on your foot, Neil?
Neil Probably! My feet are killing me!
Dan I think we've found your Achilles heel! However, it's time to go. But we will be back. In the meantime, you can find us in all the usual places online and on social media, just look for BBC Learning English. Bye for now.
NACC reveals assets of four ministers who left to join Phalang Pracharat
politics April 26, 2019 09:10
By The Nation
The anti-graft agency on Thursday disclosed the assets and liabilities of the four former Cabinet members who left the government early this year to join the pro-junta Phalang Pracharat Party.
National Anti-Corruption Commission (NACC) secretary-general Warawit Sukboon disclosed details of their financial reports after they were filed at the NACC headquarters.
The reports were submitted by former commerce minister Sontirat Sontijirawong, former Prime Minister’s Office minister Kobsak Pootrakool, former science and technology minister Suvit Maesincee and former industry minister Uttama Savanayana. The former ministers are required by law to report their assets and liabilities before assuming a Cabinet post and after leaving it.
The four, who quit their Cabinet positions on January 30, are now senior executives of Phalang Pracharat, with Uttama the party leader, Sontirat secretary-general, Suvit deputy party leader and Kobsak the spokesperson.
Sontirat, who is single, reported assets worth Bt144.4 million, with no liabilities. He reportedly became richer by Bt31 million while in office, after having reported assets worth Bt113.2 million when assuming the ministerial post. His assets include jewellery worth over Bt30 million and many coveted Buddha amulets valued at over Bt30 million.
Kobsak reported assets totalling 25.6 million and liabilities of Bt5.6 million. His wealth reduced by close to Bt3 million compared to when he assumed his Cabinet post.
Suvit has assets valued at Bt86.7 million and a debt of 10.3 million he owes his sister. He became poorer by Bt4 million compared to when he first joined the Prayut Chan-o-cha Cabinet.
His wife Pakakrong has assets worth over Bt15 million, including jewellery worth Bt2 million, property and vehicles.
Uttama’s assets are valued at Bt223.7 million, while he owes Bt2.8 million in bank loans. His wealth increased by Bt13.3 million compared to when he first joined the government.
His wife Ichaya’s wealth stands at Bt93.7 million, including investments totalling Bt62 million, land and buildings valued at over Bt16 million and vehicles worth Bt7.1 million.
Don Mueang Airport
Don Mueang Airport
Western University,Pathum Thani
Don Mueang Airport
Don Mueang Airport struck by the storm
national April 25, 2019 18:50
By THE NATION
AN UNPRECEDENTED storm hit Bangkok’s Don Mueang Airport on Thursday afternoon, affecting more than 18 flights and stranding 3,000 passengers for a short while.
At least one flight was re-directed to the nearby Suvarnabhumi Airport and another to U-Tapao Airport.
Strong winds caused Lion Air’s mobile airstair to hit a Nok Air aircraft parked nearby, after which all 176 passengers on board the Nok Air flight were made to disembark and board another aircraft. Their flight to Nakhon Si Thammarat was rescheduled from 2.05pm to 3.30pm.
Immigration Bureau’s deputy spokesman Pol Colonel Cherngron Rimpadee said the storm disrupted many flights to and from Don Mueang Airport between 2 pm and 4 pm.
The Aeronautical Radio of Thailand reported that the storm cleared at about 3.15pm and normal services at the airport resumed soon after.
During the storm, dozens of planes were parked on the tarmac waiting for the right time to take off, while dozens of others hovered nearby waiting for the right time to land.
Don Mueang Airport sits in the north of Bangkok, which was hit by heavy winds and hailstorm on Thursday afternoon.
Pathum Thani was similarly hit by winds so severe that they blew off a section of the Western University’s concrete wall. The falling debris seriously damaged four cars and two motorcycles owned by university staff and lecturers, though nobody was injured.
Police and relevant officials rushed to the scene after receiving a report on the incident.
The university is located in Pathum Thani’s Lam Luk Ka district. The site has been cordoned off pending inspection of the building and its structure.
The Meteorological Department has forecast summer and electrical storms in the North, Northeast, East and Central regions, including Bangkok, on Friday and Saturday.