Hello. Today we will start with a question for you: When you practice English more, do you remember more?
If your answer is yes, one way you can say this is:
The more I practice, the more I remember.
But suppose your answer is no. Maybe you have been practicing more but seem to be remembering less. You could say this:
The more I practice, the less I remember.
Both examples show a cause and an effect. They show that an increase or decrease of something causes an increase or decrease of something else.
In English, there are a few ways to express cause and effect relationships. One way is with a kind of comparison called a “correlative comparative.” It is also called a “the/the comparative” and that is what we will call it today.
These comparatives have many structures. And, on our program today, we will explore a few. Keep in mind that you don't need to memorize any of them.
Short and simple
To begin: The shortest, simplest structure is made of just four words. Suppose, for instance, you are having a barbecue today. Your best friend is coming to the event. But he asks if he can also bring a friend of his. You say:
Sure! The more, the merrier.
“The more, the merrier” is a popular expression. It means an activity is more enjoyable with more people. It can also mean a greater amount of something is better.
If you were to say this expression as a complete sentence, it might sound like this:
The more (there are), the merrier (it is).
But the subjects and verbs were left out of both parts of the sentence because their meaning is already understood.
Next, suppose someone at the barbecue requests a glass of lemonade. You ask her how much ice she would like in her drink. And, she answers by saying:
A lot, please!The colder, the better.
She is saying that she enjoys the taste of very cold lemonade.
The structure the + comparative adjective + the better is a very common one in the/the comparatives. For instance:
How do you like your coffee? The stronger, the better.
Which car should we rent? The cheaper, the better.
If you ask some people whether you can bring a friend to their barbecue, they might reply, "Sure! The more, the merrier."
The next structure we’ll explore adds nouns. Watch what happens when we do this for the example about the cold drink:
The colder the lemonade, the better the taste.
The speaker is expressing the same meaning as “the colder, the better,” but with a little more detail.
Notice again that the verbs are missing. That is almost always the case when the understood verb is “be.” (The full statement would be, “The colder the lemonade is, the better the taste is” but we do not say it this way.)
In addition, often the second noun is not necessary because it is understood. So the phrase usually ends with the words “the better,” like this:
The colder the lemonade, the better.
Another example of this structure is a fairly common expression. Have a listen:
The bigger the risk, the greater the reward.
It means when people take a bigger risk, their reward will be greater.
Now, let’s look at a few longer structures that are made of two clauses.
The first one deals with actions. Suppose you are talking to someone but he or she is ignoring much of what you’re saying. Listen to an example:
The more I talk, the less you listen.
Notice that both sides of the sentence are clauses: They each have their own subject and verb. In the first, the subject and verb are “I talk.” In the second, the subject and verb are “you listen.”
Here’s another one: Imagine that a group of people traveled overseas together. They had a good time. But before the trip, their visas had arrived late. This made them more anxious as each day passed. You could express it this way:
The longer they waited, the more anxious they became.
Notice this sentence is also in the past tense. Past and present tenses are common in these comparatives.
With the/the comparative clauses, you can also talk about two things, so the structure changes a little. Let’s take an example you can probably relate to:
The more time you spend with VOA Learning English, the more money you can save on English classes.
In this example, we are showing a relationship between time and money.
Here's another example:
The more games the U.S. women’s soccer team won, the more attention they got on social media.
This example shows a relationship between game wins and social media attention.
We have talked today about the/the structures that mirror each other. But not all such comparatives follow a mirroring structure. In fact, many do not. Here’s one example:
The more music he performs, the better.
Here, the first clause “The more music he performs” uses the structure for comparing things, the second half uses the simplified “the better” from earlier in the program.
Well, that’s our time for this week. Again, avoid trying to memorize the structures. Instead, listen for the/the comparatives in everyday speech. And, try using them to show a cause and an effect. The more you use them, the easier they will become.
I’m Alice Bryant.
Alice Bryant wrote this story for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.
Here are just a few structure examples from today’s program.
The cheaper, the better
the + comparative (comma) the + comparative
The bigger the risk, the greater the reward.
the + comparative + the + noun (comma) the + comparative + the + noun
The longer they waited, the more anxious they became.
the + comparative + subject + verb (comma) the + comparative + subject + verb
Do you worry about your standard of living when you retire? How much money do you need to live the life you desire? How much money is enough money? These questions got Neil and Rob thinking as they talk about financial planning and teach you money-related vocabulary.
This week's question
When was the word millionaire first used in English? Was it:
The answer is at the end of the programme.
cashflow forecast a calculation of how much money you can expect to have at a particular time
income money coming in from, for example, your salary
expenditure money you have to pay out for your regular expenses such as rent, food, entertainment, transport, etc.
assets the cash value of things that you own and your savings
liabilities the cash value of your debts, for example on credit cards or other loans
to give someone a hand to help someone
Note: This is not a word for word transcript
Neil Hello, and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Neil.
Rob And I'm Rob.
Neil In this programme we're talking about finance and in particular planning for our future lifestyles.
Rob I can barely afford my current lifestyle!
Neil Same here, but perhaps we’ll pick up some good tips today. Before that though, a question. Being a millionaire may be an impossible dream for most of us, but when was the word first used in English? Was it: a) 1600s b) 1700s, or c) 1800s What do you think, Rob?
Rob I’m going to guess that it’s the 1600s as there have always been very wealthy people.
Neil Well, I’ll reveal the answer later. Now, the BBC Money Box programme covers all sorts of financial features. Recently they were talking about lifestyle financial planning, which is planning your finances to meet the kind of lifestyle you want to have. Julie Lord leads a financial planning organisation and she talked about the process of lifestyle financial planning. How many numbers does she say you need to start with?
Julie Lord Well, we would start by saying that we need to put together a lifetime cashflow forecast or a model. You just need four numbers: your income, your expenditure, assets, liabilities and then we project forward to show you what sort of lifestyle you will have if you do nothing at all and if indeed you do some of the things that - perhaps an ISA or a pension or any other kind of financial product - might help you with.
Neil So how many numbers do you need?
Rob She says that you start with just four numbers.
Neil That’s right. The first of these numbers is your income, this is the money that you have coming in, your salary, for example.
Rob Then there is the number for your expenditure. This is the money you have going out for rent, food, entertainment, transport and so on.
Neil The next number was for assets. This is the cash value of things that you own. For example property, cars, jewellery as well as savings and investments, that kind of thing.
Rob And finally there is liabilities. This is the money that you owe, for example on credit cards or loans.
Neil So if you know these details, she says they can come up with a lifetime cashflow forecast, which is a calculation of how much money you can expect to have in the future and if that is enough to meet your expectations. Do you have those details? Do you know your numbers, Rob?
Rob I have a very detailed spreadsheet where I do list my income and expenditure. So I do know from month to month how much money I need and how much I can spend.
Neil That sounds very organised! What does it tell you about your future?
Rob Well, it just reminds me of exactly how much money I don’t have. It’s quite depressing! How about you, Neil?
Neil Oh, I live in blissful ignorance. I have no idea how big my debts are. I try not to worry about it. I kind of think I’m much too young to worry about it now and that as if by magic it will all work out in the end. So it would be difficult for me to come up those four numbers. Anyway, let’s listen to Julie Lord again describing the lifestyle financial planning process.
Julie Lord Well, we would start by saying that we need to put together a lifetime cashflow forecast or a model. You just need four numbers: your income, your expenditure, assets, liabilitiesand then we project forward to show you what sort of lifestyle you will have if you do nothing at all and if indeed you do some of the things that - perhaps an ISA or a pension or any other kind of financial product - might help you with.
Neil Is lifestyle financial planning only for older people with a good pension? Not according to Julie Lord.
Julie Lord Well, it’s not all about old age, is it? I mean there are people… we have quite a number of younger clients who come to us and say 'we just want to get financially organised, we've heard about all this stuff, these financial products, no idea really what they are or, more importantly, what they’re going to do for us, so can you give us a hand to help us look forward to see what will happen'.
Neil So she also has younger clients who ask for her company’s help.
Rob Yes, she uses the phrase, give us a hand, which means to help someone. If you give someone a hand, you help them.
Neil Exactly, in the way that I give you a hand with 6 Minute English.
Rob Well, I think I give you a hand rather than the other way around, Neil.
Neil Really, well let’s not fall out about it. Let’s listen to Julie Lord again.
Julie Lord Well, it’s not all about old age, is it? I mean, there are people… we have quite a number of younger clients who come to us and say 'we just want to get financially organised, we've heard about all this stuff, these financial products, no idea really what they are or, more importantly, what they’re going to do for us, so can you give us a hand to help us look forward to see what will happen'.
Neil It’s nearly time now to review our vocabulary, but first, let’s have the answer to our quiz question. When was the word millionaire first used in English? Was it: a) 1600s b) 1700s, or c) 1800s What did you think, Rob?
Rob Well, I guessed and said it was the 1600s.
Neil Well, not a good guess this time, I’m afraid. It’s actually a lot later. It was the 1800s when it was first used in English, though it had appeared in French in the 1700s. Now on with the vocabulary.
Rob Yes, we had a lot of financial terms in this programme. We had cashflow forecast. This is a calculation of how much money you can expect to have at a particular time in the future.
Neil And the cashflow forecast is based on knowing your income, which is the money you have coming in and your expenditure, the money you have going out.
Rob You also need to know your assets, which is the value of things you own as well as savings and investments. This is balanced against your liabilities, which is the term for the money that you owe, for example on credit cards.
Neil And finally we had the expression to give someone a hand meaning to help someone. Well, that’s all from us in this programme. We look forward to your company next time. Until then, you can find us in all the usual places on social media, online and on our app. Just search for bbclearninglish. Bye, and thanks Rob for giving me a hand.
Rob No, thank you for giving me a hand. Bye!
Thai exporters will need to rely on FTAs to survive: private sector
Jul 11. 2019
By PHUWIT LIMVIPHUWAT THE NATION
The Commerce Ministry under the new government faces tough challenges as Thai exports are expected to drop due to the ongoing US-China trade war and it is becoming a struggle to maintain the price of agricultural products due to an oversupply. In order to cope with these problems, the new government will have to encourage the private sector to rely on existing free trade agreements (FTA), seek new export markets, complete the Asean Single Window (ASW) and take a more proactive stance in supporti
In the first five months of this year, Thai exports dropped by 3 per cent compared to the same period last year, contracting in value by more than US$4 billion (Bt122.5 billion). Thailand’s economic institutions have started predicting that Thai exports will drop by around 1 per cent in 2019, compared to last year’s 6.9 per cent year-on-year growth. The Joint Standing Committee on Commerce, Industry, and Banking forecast a 1 per cent contraction recently, while Siam Commercial Bank’s Economic Intelligence Centre (EIC) estimated a 1.6 per cent decline.
In order to deal with this, private sector representatives suggested that the new government use a two-pronged approach to stimulate export growth.
“In the short and medium-term, the new government can work more closely with the private sector to ensure the FTA privileges are being utilised,” said Yunyong Thaicharoen, first executive vice president and head of the EIC.
In 2018, only 58.4 per cent of Thailand’s exports to China enjoyed FTA privileges, the Commerce Ministry said. However, from January to May this year, Thai exports to China dropped by 8.7 per cent year-on-year, reducing in value by more than $1 billion, data from the Customs Department shows.
“There are many exporters in the agriculture sector who are not aware of their FTA privileges when exporting to China. They may also not possess the knowledge on regulatory standards, intellectual property licensing and effective strategies,” said Auramon Supthaweethum, director-general of the Department of Trade Negotiations (DTN) under the Commerce Ministry.
Hence, Yunyong said, promoting the use of FTA privileges can go a long way in supporting Thai exports. However, the incoming government should continue seeking new export markets and negotiating more FTAs to support the country’s export growth prospects in the long term, he added. For instance, he said, the new government could focus on completing negotiations for the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) as soon as possible.
Prime Minister General Prayut Chan-o-cha said during the Asean Summit in June that as chair of the grouping, Thailand can be confident of completing the RCEP negotiations by the end of this year.
The mega-trade deal, which will link up the 10 Asean members and China, India, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand, has been stuck at the negotiating stage for the past seven years. Once completed, it will be the largest multilateral trade deal in history, accounting for a third of the world trade.
Thailand will benefit from lower tariffs from the 16 RCEP signatories, as it already exports 57 per cent of its goods to them. Goods exported to the 16 countries was valued at over $58 billion in the first five months of 2019.
The ASW is also on Thailand’s economic agenda this year. The regional single window aims to integrate the single-window systems of Asean countries in order to expedite cargo clearance and boost cross-border trade by enabling an electronic exchange of trade-related documents.
The new government should continue developing the ASW to improve the flow of goods within the region and boost the ease of doing business for exporters, said Kalin Sarasin, chair of the Board of Trade of Thailand.
Five Asean countries – Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia – launched the ASW in 2018, with Thailand being given the task of developing an ASW system for Cambodia, the Philippines, Brunei, Laos and Myanmar this year.
Cambodia, Philippines and Brunei have been testing the ASW option since the beginning of 2019, while Brunei recently confirmed that it can adopt the system fully, bringing the number of Asean members already using the single-window clearance system to six, DTN’s Auramon said.
The new government should also consider seeking an FTA with the European Union (EU), advised Aat Pisanwanich, director of the University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce’s Centre for International Trade Studies (CITS).
Exports to the EU account for up to 10 per cent of Thailand’s total export, though the amount has been declining at an alarming rate as Vietnam, a key competitor, has already established an FTA with the EU, he said.
Thai exports to the EU in the first five months of this year dropped by 6.9 per cent year-on-year to around $700 million and Thai-EU trade will continue declining if the Kingdom fails to swiftly negotiate a trade deal with the European bloc, Aat warned.
Vietnam’s goods that are in direct competition with Thailand, like electrical appliances, rice and fruit, will become even more competitive due to lower tariffs once the Vietnam-EU FTA is activated, Aat said. This, he added, will further reduce Thailand’s market share in the EU leading to long-term negative impacts on Thai exports.
A study conducted by the CITS suggests that once the Vietnam-EU FTA kicks in, Vietnam’s exports to the EU will rise from $50 billion per year to Bt70 billion, and reduce Thai exports by $20 billion in the second quarter of 2019 and by $40 billion in the next two years.
Meanwhile, Supant Mongkolsuthree, chair of the Thai Federation of Industries, said the new government also needs to actively support the agricultural sector.
He pointed out that the agricultural sector has been struggling on both domestic and international fronts. The price of agricultural goods has remained low locally, and those within the grassroots economy have been struggling financially due to this. Meanwhile, the export of agricultural goods has also been performing poorly due to a stronger Thai baht, which has increased the price of agricultural goods from Thailand compared to those from its competitors like Vietnam.
“We expect the new government’s agriculture-related policies to vary from controlling prices by limiting exports to offering soft loans for producers to produce less and offering price guarantees on agricultural goods,” said Mana Nimitvanich, first vice president of Krungthai Bank’s Global Business Development and Strategy Group. “While these policies are unhealthy for the economy in the long-run as they interfere with the market mechanism, they may be necessary to boost the income of those in the agricultural sector in the short-term.”
He also suggested that new government work on boosting the productivity of the agricultural sector by leveraging new technology in the long-run.
The Commerce Ministry, meanwhile, has prepared an agenda for the incoming minister to consider, such as stabilising the price of agricultural goods like rubber, cassava and rice, said Boonyarit Kalayanamit, permanent secretary of the Commerce Ministry.
Other policies the incoming commerce minister has to review include stimulating spending in the grassroots economy through the use of welfare cars and coping with the impact of the US-China trade row by negotiating more trade deals. The new minister will also have to consider joining the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership.
Deputy Commerce Minister Weeresak Wangsupakitkosol, however, said he still doesn’t know when his official tenure begins.
Other names Etang Botanical characteristics: The hut is a medium-sized perennial plant. There are 10 -15-meter high hardwood core in the Mitragyna speciosa family. Leaves resemble ylang-ylang leaves. There are red stalks and green leaves. Large round flowers, the size of the jujube The leaves are single green leaves. Arranged in pairs opposite The leaves are about 5-10 cm wide, about 8-14 cm long. The flowers are yellowish-white in color, round, 3-5 cm in diameter.
Sources found in some provinces of the central region, such as Pathum Thani, but are more common in natural forests in the southern regions such as Surat Thani, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Trang, Satun, Phatthalung, Songkhla, Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat and Upper Malaysia.
Scientific name Mitragyna speciosa Korth. In the family Rubiaceae
The drugs found in the cottage leaves are Mitragynine, a type of alkaloids. CNS depressant as well as the same drugs such as psilocybin, LSD and amphetamines
How to chew fresh leaves or grind dried leaves into powder, dissolve some drinking water, add a little salt to prevent constipation. Most will chew only 2-3 leaves and drink warm water. Or hot coffee according to use 3-10 times a day per day according to tired symptoms When used for a while The amount of use will increase. (About 37 percent use 21-30 leaves per day)
The results of the study found that after chewing the leaves for about 5-10 minutes, the symptoms will be pleasant. Perky, not feeling hungry (not wanting to eat), pressing the feeling of fatigue while working Making it able to work for a long time And more resistant to the sun But will cause fear of chills when the weather is overcast. Eaters will have red skin because of blood to raise skin. Side effects include dry mouth, frequent urination, loss of appetite, constipation, hard stools, small nodules, insomnia, if taking large amounts of kratom leaves. Will cause numbness And nausea, vomiting (drunken hut), but in some cases, only 3 leaves are drunk In the case of people who use kratom leaves a lot Or for a long time Often causes changes in the pigment on the skin Causing those who eat with darker and darker skin And also found that he had taken the hut without swiping the stem from the leaf first May cause symptoms known as "duct bags" in the intestine because the stalks and leaves of the hut cannot be digested Therefore settling in the intestine Can not excrete The membrane is wrapped around the hut. Causing a lump in the intestine Some people will have paranoid psychosis, hallucinations, thinking that people will hurt themselves. And I don't know much about
Symptoms when stopped
powerless Muscle aches and bones Twitching limbs Fatigue, unable to work Depressed mood Flowing water aggressive Sleepless The body has unusually high temperatures. Liquid defecation is very normal. Difficult food Vomiting Have more cough More anxious Traditional medicinal properties Cottage is a plant that is used as a drug in the form of drugs for diarrhea. In the formulas of folk medicine or traditional doctors, such as drug formulations, cottages, etc. However, there is no need to use this medicine Because there are modern and traditional drugs that give equal or better results. Even if the cottage leaves provide the effect that may have medicinal benefits But makes it addictive and has a negative effect on health If used for a long time
Misuse Nowadays, cottages have problems with epidemics among teenagers and students. May be due to being cheap and causing psychedelic symptoms as well as other drugs Which is often used to boil water mixed with coke, mosquito repellent and cough medicine (4 × 100)
Legal control In 1943, Thailand was the first country to announce the use of Kratom. By enacting the Kratom Act, BE 2486, prohibiting planting and possession, including prohibiting the sale and use of cottage leaves Since the year 2522, the cottage is an addictive drug for the category 5, according to the Narcotics Act, BE 2522
- Any person who produces, sells, imports or exports the narcotics for category 5 shall be punished with imprisonment from 2 to 5 years and fined from 20,000 - 150,000 baht. - possession without permission Shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years or a fine not exceeding 100,000 baht or both Control abroad The United Nations (UN) has not yet announced the control of Kratom in the list of drugs or drugs in accordance with the International Convention, but from the World drug report 2013 of the United Nations Drug and Crime Control Office (UNODC). Cooperation for member countries to monitor and monitor the situation of new active substances Which has huts included From the search, it was found that European countries such as Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Sweden have control over plants, mitragynine, and 7-hydroxy mitragynine. For Australia, Burma, including Thailand, there is control of Kratom under the laws relating to drugs. New Zealand Control of Kratom and mitragynine under the Medicines Amendment Regulations from the World drug report 2013 of the United Nations Drug and Crime Control Office (UNODC). Kratom plants are widely used in Southeast Asian countries. And reports of use in South Korea, which in 2011 Europe began to sell cottage plants on the Internet widely.
bibliography Painkillers or narcotic drugs compiled by Asst. Prof. Dr. Niwat Kaewpradab, Department of Pharmacology and Botanical Pharmacy Faculty of Pharmacy Prince of Songkla University http://herbal.pharmacy.psu.ac.th/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=114&Itemid=43 Wikipedia: Cottage http://th.wikipedia.org Complete report Study of various effects of Kratom control as a narcotics in category 5 Drug Control Division