Signs, fliers and other notices with racist language are increasingly being found at colleges and universities in the United States, a new report finds.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) reported recently that examples of white supremacist propaganda on U.S. college campuses rose during the most recent school year.
The ADL watches hate groups, including those who believe that white people are better than members of other races. The group says its aim is to secure justice and fair treatment for all people. It adds that white supremacist propaganda on campuses has increased in each of the past two years.
The report noted a sharp increase in documented cases in the 2017-2018 school year. Examples included white supremacist fliers, stickers and other material.
More extremist propaganda was found during the spring term of 2019 than any term in the past, the ADL said. There were 161 incidents on 122 different college and university campuses across 33 states, and in Washington, D.C. The report documented 313 cases of white supremacist propaganda on U.S. campuses between September 2018 and the end of May 2019.
The cases were tied to organizations linked to what has become known as the alternative right, or “alt-right,” movement. The ADL says the term “alt-right” is used to describe extremists who reject traditional conservative thinking. They instead support forms of conservatism that express support of racism or white supremacy.
The 2017-2018 total marked a 77% increase from the year before.
Lynn Pasquerella is president of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. She says their members are concerned about increasing signs of white supremacists.
“There is a rise of white nationalism, racist propaganda on college and university campuses across the country, and around the world. We’re seeing the growing concern on the part of college administrators about the type of rhetoric that challenges institutional commitment to equity and social justice.”
Examples of white supremacist propaganda also increased in non-college settings, the ADL said, with 672 examples in the first five months of this year.
Jonathan Greenblatt is the ADL’s chief executive officer. He said the recent increase on college campuses shows a greater effort within hate groups to expand. Greenblatt said their leaders are hoping to influence young, easily influenced minds. The overall increase shows a political climate where white supremacist propaganda is increasingly accepted, he added.
White supremacist groups are using social media to push their message to the public. They have gained a level of influence in the political discussions not seen in many years, Greenblatt said.
The Southern Poverty Law Center closely follows hate groups and extremists. It confirms that the number of hate messages on and off U.S. college campuses has risen in recent years.
Heidi Beirich is a director of the center’s intelligence project.
Beirich told VOA she thinks white nationalist and alt-right groups are increasing their messages on social media and campuses to get more members and publicity.
The propaganda attacks minorities, including non-whites, Jews, Muslims, and immigrants. Some messages included links to websites that contain white supremacist information.
It is not clear how successful these messages are in recruiting new members. But Beirich says that hate groups are reaching out to students on U.S. college campuses.
"And so I’m sure they have picked up some folks, young white men, as I’ve said, who maybe have been reading hate material online anyways, who have frustrations about the environment on campus, maybe it is too liberal for their taste, and who might decide to call somebody up like this. And you know, there is no shortage of people with higher degrees in this movement.”
She also says that hate groups support some of the policies of U.S. President Donald Trump.
“What they liked about Donald Trump was not his entire message, but they like the idea of a Muslim ban. They like the anti-immigrant policies that Trump advocated in the campaign, and now has been involved in with things like ICE [US Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency] raids and building the wall, and the fact that this is happening from the highest levels of the government energizes this movement.”
In 2017, President Trump was criticized for failing to condemn white supremacists by name immediately after violent clashes in Charlottesville, Virginia. A group of white supremacists clashed with opponents during a protest.
Days later, Trump said that there were some “very fine people on both sides” and that neo-Nazis and white nationalists involved “should be condemned totally.”
Lynn Pasquerella agrees that the national political rhetoric is adding to the problem. She says that white nationalists are partly acting out of fear of losing their jobs to immigrants.
In the 2018-2019 academic year, California had the highest number of on-campus white supremacist propaganda examples: a total of 58. The ADL said that was followed by Kentucky with 22 and Oklahoma with 19.
Pasquerella says this propaganda is coming from outside college campuses. Now, she says, it is up to college leaders to get involved in the public debate and to help promote understanding and education.
I’m Anne Ball.
Anne Ball wrote this story for Learning English with information from the Associated Press. George Grow was the editor.
What do you think of this story? Write to us in the comments section below.
Quiz-More White Extremist Propaganda Appearing at US Colleges, Universities
Start the Quiz to find out
Words in This Story
campus – n. the area and buildings around a university, college or school
alternative - adj. existing or functioning outside of the established society
rhetoric - n. a language that is intended to influence people and that may not be honest or reasonable
institutional - adj. in relation to an established organization
engage – v. to do (something)
frustration – n. a feeling of anger or annoyance caused by being unable to do something: the state of being frustrated
higher degree – n. an education degree above a high school diploma
neo-Nazi – n. a person who belongs to a group that believes in the ideas and policies of Hitler's Nazis and that sometimes commits violent acts
July 20, 2019
English in a Minute: Lay It On Thick
6 Minute English
The business of eSports
EPISODE 190627 / 27 JUN 2019
eSports is essentially competitive video gaming. Individuals and teams take part in competitions where they play video games. Tens of thousands of people turn up to watch these events. The players are professional and get paid huge salaries – the best ones are millionaires. Find out more about it with Neil and Sam in 6 Minutes English and learn new vocabulary along the way.
This week's question
Approximately how much was generated by eSports and video games in the last year? Was it…
a) $130 million?
b) $13 billion?
c) $130 billion?
Listen to the programme to find out the answer.
the business of competitive video gaming
a basic essential that is expected and common
using up a lot of time
the following of rules and restrictions
to put (something) together
to organise (something, such as an event)
a hope or ambition for the future
Note: This is not a word for word transcript
Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Neil.
And I'm Sam.
Now Sam, how would you define eSports?
eSports? Well this is essentially competitive video gaming. Individuals and teams take part in competitions where they play video games.
So just like me and my kids at the weekend?
Well, no! eSports is enormous. Tens of thousands of people turn up to watch these events. The players are professional and get paid huge salaries – the best ones are millionaires.
Well, maybe I’m not quite in that league yet! But the business of eSports is our topic for this programme. Before we press 'play' on the subject though, a question. Approximately how much was generated by eSports and video games in the last year? Was it…
a) $130 million?
b) $13 billion?
c) $130 billion?
What do you think then, Sam?
I’m going to say $130 billion. It’s a huge amount, but I think it’s that successful at the moment.
OK, we’ll find out if you’re right at the end of the programme. Not so long ago the idea of making a living playing computer games would have seemed impossible. However, times have changed as technology has improved. eSports are even going to be included in the 2022 Asian Games. So it might not be long before they make an appearance at the Olympics. Gabriël Rau is a pro-eSportsman. He was interviewed for the BBC programme In Business. He thinks eSports are going to grow and grow, but does he think that’s a bad thing?
Gabriël Rau, pro-eSportsman
It's becoming more of a normal sports thing with this generation about to have children and moving forward I feel like it might even become a staple. Might become as normal as sports are right now. I don't think it necessarily has to be a bad thing. It is time-consuming though, so I feel like, if you do want to introduce anybody, especially children, into video games, discipline is the way to go.
So, is the growth of eSports a bad thing?
Not, according to Gabriël. He thinks that people having children now have grown up with computer games and these are beginning to be seen in the same way as traditional sports. In fact, he thinks they will become a staple.
And what does he mean by that?
Something that is a staple is a basic element, something we expect. For example, in the UK we talk about potatoes being a staple food and football being a staple of the school curriculum.
But he does mention a disadvantage, doesn't he?
Yes. He speaks quite quickly but he says that it is time-consuming. It eats up a lot of time!
Oh yes, I know that from my own experience. I can start playing a game then find that many hours have passed and it’s the middle of the night.
And that’s why Gabriël goes on to talk about the need for discipline. This is having strict controls and restrictions and importantly sticking to them. So, for example, if you say you are only going to play for an hour every day, you have to stop playing after an hour, even if you want to carry on. That’s discipline.
And he makes the point that this is important if you are introducing children to video games. Not everyone involved in eSports wants to be a player. It’s now possible to study the business of eSports at university where you can learn how to manage eSports events. These are the thoughts of a student on one of those courses talking about her response to seeing a big eSports event.
Student of eSports studies
When you look at the background of how it all comes together and the people that spend all that time getting into it, for me I would love to put something like that together, not so much to play it but to put that together and create that experience for other people and that was just my main aspiration really.
So she doesn’t want to play, does she?
No, she doesn’t. She seems more interested in putting together an event, which means setting up and managing an event for others to take part in. That, she said, was her aspiration, her ambition.
Right, before we review the vocabulary, let’s have the answer to our quiz question. Approximately how much was generated by eSports and video games in the last year?
a) $130 million?
b) $13 billion?
c) $130 billion?
What did you say, Sam?
I thought $130 billion.
And, for once, you’re right so well done. The actual figure was approximately $137 billion, which was more than the music industry when you include music sales and concerts. Right on now to remind ourselves of some words and phrases from today’s programme.
Yes, we’ve been looking at eSports, the world of competitive video gaming.
We heard that it was becoming so normal that it might become a staple, an expected basic activity in the same way sports like football are.
But be warned, playing video games is very time-consuming. It eats up a lot of time.
So you need to have discipline. That means you need to have and keep to restrictions such as the length of time you play or the time of day you play. That is particularly important for children.
If you organise an event, you can say that you put it together.
And your ambition, your hope for the future is an aspiration.
And my aspiration is to beat my high score on my favourite game, so are we done now?
Yes, it’s game over for us today. We’ll see you again soon and don’t forget to look out for more from the bbc learning english team online, on social media and on our app. Bye for now.
Jurin brainstorms South development with Transport, Interior ministries
By THE NATION
Also present at the meeting was Commerce Ministry’s permanent secretary Rear Admiral Somkiat Pholprayoon, who is also secretary-general of SBPAC.
Jurin said emergency measures still posed a problem when it comes to development in the five provinces.
“We need to tackle the problem on three dimensions – investment, tourism and cross-border trade, which is worth about Bt230 billion,” Jurin said, adding that Thailand is still suffering a trade deficit in exports to Malaysia, especially when it comes to rubber products.
“The multi-party meeting aimed to seek solutions to restore and build the basic economy in the five provinces so people have a better life,” Jurin, who is also deputy prime minister, said.
Meanwhile, Thavorn said that last week he had listened to a briefing from related parties, along with the transport minister and his deputy, and realised that a four-pronged approach will have to be taken with the development of the five provinces. The measures are:
1) Developing land transport and increasing both main and secondary transportation routes as well as connections to Malaysia and Singapore in line with the government’s one-belt-one-road strategy;
2) Developing water transport by opening three water gateways in the South, that also connect with Malaysia and China as part of the one-belt-one-road strategy;
3) Developing rail transport and connecting with other regions;
4) Developing air transport in line with the Transport Ministry’s plan to not open any new airports for 10 years, but to develop existing airports in the South, including plans to expand the Narathiwat airport.
Niphon, meanwhile, said the Interior Ministry will apply the principle of King Rama IX, “Understanding, Accessibility,
and Development”, to help build a better life for people in the South.
“We will focus on the decentralisation of power in the southern border provinces, especially by increasing the number of special economic zones, which will create jobs for people. In the agricultural sector, we will use ‘local mechanisms’ to solve local problems by encouraging more usage of agricultural products, like making rubber roads to generate demand for rubber and creating stability for the price of rubber,” Niphon said.
July 21, 2019