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          On this occasion, I'd like to invite you to follow up the red line that happened under some word by G

Grammarly for warning you to correct the mistake on the webpage all the time. 

But however some word you have to bring it to the dictionary too.

Many thanks to Google Translate and G Grammarly as ever.

FRANCE 24 Live – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/IBlUM-0NZZU

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Scientists Say ‘Frozen Smoke’ Material Could Make Mars Livable

July 21, 2019

This mosaic image, taken by NASA's Mars Curiosity rover, looks uphill at the Mars mountain Mount Sharp. (NASA)
This mosaic image, taken by NASA's Mars Curiosity rover, looks uphill at the Mars mountain Mount Sharp. (NASA)
 

While no life has yet been discovered on Mars, humans have long considered the possibility of someday living on the Red Planet. The problem with this idea is that Mars experiences extreme conditions that would make it impossible for humans to survive.

Two of the most extreme conditions are very low temperatures and high levels of radiation from the sun. Both of these make Mars currently unlivable for humans, plants and other forms of life.

Yet discussions continue about sending people to Mars, with some even proposing a human colonization of the planet in the future.

The American space agency NASA has plans to someday put humans on Mars. NASA’s goal is to first return humans to the Moon by 2024. The agency then plans to carry out several Moon missions in preparation for sending astronauts to Mars by the 2030s.

This Dec. 2, 2016 image taken by NASA's Curiosity rover shows rocky ground on the lower flank of Mount Sharp, a mountain on Mars.
This Dec. 2, 2016 image taken by NASA's Curiosity rover shows rocky ground on the lower flank of Mount Sharp, a mountain on Mars.

A new study proposes a plan that may make it possible for humans not only to visit Mars, but also live there. The study involved researchers from America’s Harvard University, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Edinburgh in Scotland.

The study, published in Nature Astronomy, explains how a material called aerogel might protect living things on Mars. NASA has described aerogel as “the lightest solid material known.” Most aerogel is made from silica, a substance found in glass. It is sometimes called “frozen smoke” because of its weight and cloud-like appearance.

Aerogel, made with 99 percent air, is extremely light. The material also permits light to pass through while blocking harmful ultraviolet light radiation. Aerogel has also been used by NASA as an effective insulator to prevent its Mars vehicles from freezing.

Scientists tested these samples of aerogel to see how they could be used as building materials on Mars. In experiments, both the crushed and solid samples of aerogel were able to raise temperatures to melt water ice - ideal for a Martian greenhouse.
Scientists tested these samples of aerogel to see how they could be used as building materials on Mars. In experiments, both the crushed and solid samples of aerogel were able to raise temperatures to melt water ice - ideal for a Martian greenhouse.

The researchers propose putting shields with a two- to three-centimeter layer of aerogel in different areas above the surface of Mars.

Experiments involved a layer of aerogel and lights used to simulate Martian sunlight. Researchers reported the temperature on the simulated Mars surface was raised to 65 degrees Celsius. This temperature would be enough to melt ice on Mars.

The study suggests that a layer of aerogel in areas above Mars would make it possible for enough light to reach the surface to permit photosynthesis. This is the process by which plants use energy from the sun to turn water and carbon dioxide into food.

If successful, this process could give humans the ability to grow food on Mars. This would help reduce the need for supply shipments requiring costly equipment and fuel. The aerogel could also protect humans from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

 

 

Laura Kerber is a research scientist at NASA’s JPL. She helped lead the experiments. She said in a statement that, after Earth, Mars “is the most habitable planet” in our solar system. She added, “But it remains a hostile world for many kinds of life.” The aerogel could create “small islands of habitability” for humans and other living things, Kerber said.

Robin Wordsworth is a professor of environmental science and engineering at Harvard University. He said the aerogel could provide a relatively easy solution to help make Mars livable. “Spread across a large enough area, you wouldn’t need any other technology or physics, you would just need a layer of this stuff on the surface, and underneath you would have permanent liquid water,” Wordsworth said.

The material could also be used to build habitation living spaces or self-contained biospheres on Mars.

The researchers plan next to take their experiment outside the laboratory and into places that have Mars-like climates on Earth. Two possible areas include the Atacama Desert in Chile or Antarctica's McMurdo Dry Valleys. Like Mars, these two places experience very cold temperatures and extremely dry air.

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Bryan Lynn wrote this story for VOA Learning English, based on reports from NASA, Nature Astronomy, Harvard University and other online sources. Ashley Thompson the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.

Quiz - ‘Frozen Smoke’ Material Could Make Mars Livable

Quiz - ‘Frozen Smoke’ Material Could Make Mars Livable

Start the Quiz to find out

 

Words in This Story

mission – n. an important task, usually involving travel

shield – n. piece of equipment used as protection

insulator – n. a material or covering that prevents electricity, heat or sound from passing through

simulate – v. create conditions or processes similar to something that exists

ultraviolet – adj. used to describe light that cannot be seen and that has shorter wavelengths than violet light

habitable – adj. able to be lived in

passive – adj. not acting to influence or change a situation

maintenance – n. the process of keeping or continuing something

biosphere – n. the part of the Earth's environment where life exists

News Words: Cheeky

July 18, 2019

 

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6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

The decluttering trend

EPISODE 190411 / 11 APR 2019

Introduction

Do you have too much stuff? If so, you're not alone. These days people tend to buy and keep more things than they used to. But what do we do with it all once we've had enough of it? Recently, people have been trying to find ways to reduce the amount of stuff that they own. Rob and Neil find out all about the latest decluttering trend, how to do it and why in this 6 Minute English programme!

This week's question

The vacuum cleaner is a machine we use to clean our houses. When were the first mechanical floor cleaners, which later became vacuum cleaners, invented? Was it:

a) the 1860s?

b) the 1890s? Or

c) the 1920s?

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary

floordrobe
collection of clothes untidily kept on the floor rather than in a wardrobe.

clutter
untidiness caused by having too many things – to declutter is the process of getting rid of things

to tackle (a problem)
to deal with a problem and try to fix it

sentimental
with an emotional and/or nostalgic connection

shift
change

make do and mend
an expression that means to use what you’ve got and fix something if it breaks rather than buying new things

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word for word transcript

Rob
Hello. This is 6 Minute English. I'm Rob.

Neil
And I'm Neil.

Rob
Now, Neil, are you a tidy person?

Neil
Me? Oh dear no! You should see my floordrobe!

Rob
Your floordrobe?

Neil
Yes. Tidy people keep their clothes in a wardrobe. I just dump a lot of my clothes on the floor, so – a floordrobe.

Rob
Ah yes, well it sounds as if you could use a bit of declutteringClutter is the word for general mess and untidiness when you have too many things, too much stuff. These days the idea of decluttering is very popular.

Neil
Oh, I love a good declutter - trouble is, I hate throwing things away.

Rob
Well, we might have some advice for you in today’s programme. But first, a question. It’s about cleaning up. The vacuum cleaner is a machine we use to clean our houses. When were the first mechanical floor cleaners, which later became vacuum cleaners, invented? Was it:

A) the 1860s?

B) the 1890s? Or

C) the 1920s?

Neil
Well, you know what? I have no idea! So, I’ll say the 1890s.

Rob
OK, well, I’ll have the answer later in the programme. The decluttering techniques of Marie Kondo are very popular these days. A UK decluttering expert, Lesley Spellman, appeared on the BBC radio programme You and Yours to discuss the topic. She was asked to describe the basics of the Marie Kondo method. What’s the first thing she recommends people start with?

Lesley Spellman
She basically says you have to do things in a certain order. You have to start with your clothes. Then you move on to your books. Then you move on to paperwork. Then you go on to something called 'komono', which is kind of everything else: kitchens, bathrooms, garages, lofts etc. And then finally you tackle sentimental things.

Rob
She says that you have to start with your clothes before moving on through different categories of clutter.

Neil
The verb she uses for dealing with these things is to tackleTo tackle something means 'to deal with it, to sort it out'.

Rob
And the last things she says you need to tackle are sentimental things. These are things that you have an emotional connection to, such as old letters and photographs. I have to say those are the things I find most difficult to get rid of! I’m very sentimental like that.

Neil
I think you just have to be ruthless, Rob! Either that or buy a bigger house. Right, let’s listen to Lesley Spellman again.

Lesley Spellman
She basically says you have to do things in a certain order. You have to start with your clothes. Then you move on to your books. Then you move on to paperwork. Then you go on to something called 'komono', which is kind of everything else: kitchens, bathrooms, garages, lofts etc. And then finally you tackle sentimental things.

Rob
So why is it that decluttering is such big business these days, and there are many people and companies offering advice and services? Here’s Lesley Spellman again with her thoughts on this.

Lesley Spellman
I think there's been a big shift really. So my generation, my parents, you know, definitely came from that 'make do and mend' era post war in the sort of 20th century. And then all of a sudden people started to get a little bit more money. Things became more affordable. You can buy five tops for five pounds each and people have done that. And that's allowed the consumerism to kind of go crazy in the 21st century.

Rob
So what does she put our need for decluttering down to?

Neil
Well, first she says that there has been a shift in our behaviour. This is a way of saying that there has been a change in the way we behave. We used to make do and mendmuch more. This phrase means that we made full use of what we had and if something broke, we tried to fix it.

Rob
And these days, we seem to have more money and many goods have got cheaper, and we just like buying stuff – or as she says, consumerism has gone crazy. Let’s listen to her again.

Lesley Spellman
I think there's been a big shift really. So my generation, my parents, you know, definitely came from that 'make do and mend' era post war in the sort of 20th century. And then all of a sudden people started to get a little bit more money. Things became more affordable. You can buy five tops for five pounds each and people have done that. And that's allowed the consumerism to kind of go crazy in the 21st century.

Rob
Time to tidy up today’s vocabulary, but first, let’s have the answer to the question. Earlier I asked you: When were the first mechanical floor cleaners invented? Was it in:

A) the 1860s?

B) the 1890s? Or

C) the 1920s?

And Neil, you said?

Neil
I guessed at the 1890s.

Rob
Sadly not! The correct answer is the 1860s. So, well done anyone who got that right. Now on with today’s vocabulary . The first word we had was floordrobe.

Neil
Yes, this is a word to describe a pile of clothes that someone keeps on the floor rather than in a wardrobe.

Rob
Well I don’t have a floordrobe, but I do have a chair drobe – I guess you can work out what that means! Anyway, it seems we both have too much clutter, which is the untidiness caused by having too many things.

Neil
And this leads us to the popular pastime of decluttering, which is throwing away things to make our homes neat and tidy.

Rob
Clutter, in my life, is an issue I haven’t tackled yet. I haven’t tried to fix it or sort it out.

Neil
One area that the experts say you need to tackle is sentimental things. These are things which you have an emotional connection to – maybe old letters and photographs for example.

Rob
We then looked at the word shift, which was a way of saying 'change'. There has been a shift or a change in the way we think about things.

Neil
Yes, rather than an attitude of make do and mend, which means an attitude of 'being content with what you’ve got and fixing things if they break', we have become part of a consumerist culture where we like to buy more and more stuff.

Rob
But we still find it hard to throw things away!

Neil
Yes, indeed, we do. Well, it’s time for us to collect our scripts and declutter the studio. We look forward to your company next time and until then you can find us in all the usual places online and on social media, just look for BBC Learning English. Bye for now.

Rob
Bye-bye!

 ..............................................

 

Strong baht hits foreign investment fund returns, TMB says

Jul 22. 2019

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By The Nation

1,174 Viewed

The strong baht has cut the value of the foreign investment fund (FIF) under fund management, falling by Bt27 billion from Bt1.2 trillion at the start of the year, TMB Bank said.

TMB said the drop reduced the fund’s return by 0.47 per cent. The least impacted funds are those covering oil investment, gold, and property funds, at 0.53 per cent, followed by a balanced fund.

Naris Sathaphondecha, the senior director of the TMB economic analysis centre (TMB Analytics), said that the baht’s appreciation not only affected the export market and tourism businesses but investors’ portfolios - especially the FIF. The currency has risen 5.8 per cent this year. 

The Bt1.2 trillion earlier valuation for the existing FIF funds comprised Bt836 billion in fixed income, Bt243 billion in equities, and Bt30 billion in commodity and property funds.

“The baht’s appreciation widely affects every sector related to business. When investing in US dollars, inventors find returns have less value in baht. The strong baht affects the returns on funds as investors are concerned about the exchange rate. The investment markets have gone down, especially the stock market. Investors will soon know that they are losing profits because of exchange rate. ” he said.

However, the effect of baht appreciation is mostly felt on the fund that has low protection for currency risk, also known as a totally naked protection fund. These fund risk lower net asset values (NAV) or losses on investment. “The most affected fund since early this year has been a mixed fund on gold and oil investments. It received a lower return at 0.53 per cent. Also affected are the discretionary risk prevention groups and partial risk prevention groups, with fund returns dropping 0.44 per cent,” Naris said.

However, the debenture fund was largely unaffected by the appreciation because of risk prevention measures. The fund’s return dropped by 0.21 per cent.

“If you look closely, the return was reduced by Bt27 billion from the value of the fund. The stock dropped by Bt16 billion and the mixed fund fell about Bt6.8 billion. Why did the AUM (assets under management) fall dramatically? It depends on the AUM’s base investment. If there are large investments, the imports will be massive. Therefore, when investors hold investment units, they must consider the impact of a lower exchange rate affecting the returns and whether baht appreciation will occur in the future” Naris added.

 .....................................................

 FINISHED

July 22, 2019

 



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