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The new serious danger in the world nowadays is plastic, that it is all plastic products in today human daily use. The news report: Scientists Find High Levels of Plastics in Arctic Snow, makes a surprise worldwide.

 Many thanks to Google Translate and G Grammarly as ever.

 

FRANCE 24 Live – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/IBlUM-0NZZU

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Scientists Find High Levels of Plastics in Arctic Snow

August 18, 2019

Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute use the board helicopter from the icebreaking research vessel Polarstern to collect snow samples. Even in the Arctic the snow is polluted with microplastics. (Photo: Kajetan Deja)
Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute use the board helicopter from the icebreaking research vessel Polarstern to collect snow samples. Even in the Arctic the snow is polluted with microplastics. (Photo: Kajetan Deja)
 
Scientists Find High Levels of Plastics in Arctic Snow
 
Scientists say they have found high levels of small plastic particles in Arctic snow. Their findings provide more evidence that plastic is entering Earth’s atmosphere and traveling great distances around the planet.

A new report describing the discovery was published in Science Advances.

A German-Swiss research team collected snow samples from the Arctic and other areas. They included northern Germany, the Bavarian and Swiss Alps, and the North Sea island of Heligoland.

When the researchers examined the samples in a laboratory, they were surprised to find very high levels of microplastics.

Microplastics are very small pieces of plastic. These plastic particles are generally smaller than 5 millimeters in length. Other studies have found microplastics in the environment. They come from the disposal and breakdown of man-made plastic products and industrial waste.

In this Sept. 9, 2018 photo, plastic waste sits on a freshly cultivated field in Nauen, Germany. (AP Photo/Ferdinand Ostrop)
In this Sept. 9, 2018 photo, plastic waste sits on a freshly cultivated field in Nauen, Germany. (AP Photo/Ferdinand Ostrop)

Melanie Bergmann co-wrote the report on the new study. She told The Associated Press that while her team did expect to find some microplastics in the samples, they were surprised by the very large amounts.

Bergmann is a researcher at the Alfred-Wegener-Institute in the German city of Bremerhaven.

The study found the highest levels of microplastics came from the Bavarian Alps. One snow sample from the area had 154,000 microplastic particles per liter. Samples collected from the Arctic had much lower levels. However, even samples from the Arctic contained up to 14,000 particles per liter, the study found.

Earlier studies found signs of plastic in Arctic areas. Those microplastics were found in coastal areas, sea ice, the seafloor, and the seawater’s surface.

The snow samples from Tschuggen, Switzerland, are locked and ready for transport to Davos. (Photo: Kajetan Deja)
The snow samples from Tschuggen, Switzerland, are locked and ready for transport to Davos. (Photo: Kajetan Deja)

The new study attempted to explore how some of the material could have been carried in the atmosphere. A limited number of earlier studies did find microplastics in the air of some cities, including Paris, Tehran and Dongguan, China.

Bergmann said in a statement she believes the new study clearly shows that “the majority of the microplastic in the snow comes from the air.” She said this idea is supported by research that studied the atmospheric movement of pollen from plants. In those studies, scientists confirmed pollen had traveled great distances to reach the Arctic.

Other studies found that dust particles – which are similar to microplastics - traveled more than 3,500 kilometers from the Sahara Desert to the northeast Atlantic.

Bergmann said the new study suggests that much of the microplastic found in Europe and the Arctic comes from the atmosphere and snow. “This additional transport route could also explain the high amounts of microplastic that we’ve found in the Arctic sea ice and the deep sea in previous studies,” she said.

Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute collect snow samples with help from the research vessel Polarstern. Even in the Arctic the snow is polluted with microplastics. (Photo: Kajetan Deja)
Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute collect snow samples with help from the research vessel Polarstern. Even in the Arctic, the snow is polluted with microplastics. (Photo: Kajetan Deja)

The research team discovered many kinds of microplastics. Some were from paints commonly used to coat the surface of automobiles and ships. A rubber-like substance was also found that could have come from vehicle or boat parts or packaging materials, the report said.

While there is growing concern about the effect of microplastics on the environment, scientists are still studying their possible harmful effects on humans and animals.

Bergmann said she hopes the new study will lead to more research on this issue. She also said she believes that microscopic plastic particles should be included in worldwide observations of air pollution levels.

“We really need to know what effects microplastics have on humans, especially if inhaled with the air that we breathe,” Bergmann said.

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Bryan Lynn wrote this story for VOA Learning English, based on reports from the Associated Press, Reuters, Science Advances and the Alfred-Wegener-Institute. George Grow was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.

Quiz - Scientists Find High Levels of Plastics in Arctic Snow

Quiz - Scientists Find High Levels of Plastics in Arctic Snow

Start the Quiz to find out

Words in This Story

sample – n. a small piece or piece meant to show what the whole being or object is like;

disposal – n. the act of getting rid of something

route – n. the path followed to get from one place to another

packaging – n. t e paper, box, etc. something is kept in so it can be sold or sent somewhere

inhale – v. to breathe in

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Scientists Find Bones from Giant Penguin in New Zealand

August 18, 2019

Dr. Paul Scofield, senior curator natural history at Canterbury Museum, holds the fossil, a tibiotarsus, top, next to a similar bone of an Emperor Penguin in Christchurch, New Zealand, Wednesday, Aug. 14, 2019.
Dr. Paul Scofield, senior curator natural history at Canterbury Museum, holds the fossil, a tibiotarsus, top, next to a similar bone of an Emperor Penguin in Christchurch, New Zealand, Wednesday, Aug. 14, 2019.
 
Scientists Find Bones from Giant Penguin in New Zealand
 
Scientists in New Zealand have found fossilized leg bones from a penguin believed to have been about the size of an adult human.

The previously undiscovered giant penguin species likely stood about 1.6 meters tall and weighed up to 80 kilograms.

The penguin existed about 60 million years ago, researchers say. The bones are believed to be from the oldest of several species of giant penguins that lived after dinosaurs died out.

A fossil hunter found the bones last year in the Waipara River bed near the city of Christchurch. The bones are from the animal’s legs and feet.

Scientists confirmed that the bones came from a newly discovered species. They recently reported their results in “Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology.”

Paul Scofield is senior curator at New Zealand’s Canterbury Museum. He co-wrote a paper on the discovery. He told the Associated Press that the bones are an important find. They show that the species is similar to another giant penguin found in Antarctica in 2000. The latest discovery, he said, helps show a clear connection between the two areas during the Paleocene period. This period lasted from 66 million to 56 million years ago.

Scofield said the penguins were able to grow larger after entering a new development period following the extinction of dinosaurs, sea reptiles and huge fish.

Scofield added that the giant penguins became extinct within 30 million years, as large mammals began to rule the waters.

Ewan Fordyce is a paleontology professor from New Zealand’s University of Otago. He was not involved in the research. He told the AP the penguin was among the oldest ever found. He said one of the most difficult things for scientists making such discoveries is estimating the overall size of the birds based on pieces of bones.

John Cockrem is a penguin expert at the country’s Massey University who was also not involved in the research. He said the discovery helps add to what we know about giant penguins. He said it also confirmed New Zealand as the penguin center of the world.

New Zealand is believed to have been home to many giant bird species that later disappeared. These included the world’s largest parrot, a giant eagle and an emu-like bird called the moa.

Recently, Canterbury Museum announced the discovery of an unusually large parrot believed to have lived about 19 million years ago. Scientists say the bird stood about one meter tall.

I’m Bryan Lynn.

 

Bryan Lynn wrote this story for VOA Learning English, based on reports from the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Ashley Thompson was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.

_______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

 previously – adv. existing or happening before something else

species – n. a biological classification or grouping

curator – n. a person with responsibilities over a museum

extinction – n. when a type of animal no longer exists

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6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

Do you care if you're poor when you're old?

EPISODE 190711 / 11 JUL 2019

Introduction

Do you worry about your standard of living when you retire? How much money do you need to live the life you desire? How much money is enough money? These questions got Neil and Rob thinking as they talk about financial planning and teach you money-related vocabulary.

This week's question

When was the word millionaire first used in English? Was it:

a) 1600s

b) 1700s 

c) 1800s

The answer is at the end of the programme.

Vocabulary

cashflow forecast
a calculation of how much money you can expect to have at a particular time

income
money coming in from, for example, your salary

expenditure
money you have to pay out for your regular expenses such as rent, food, entertainment, transport, etc.

assets
the cash value of things that you own and your savings

liabilities
the cash value of your debts, for example on credit cards or other loans

to give someone a hand
to help someone

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word for word transcript  

Neil
Hello, and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Neil.  

Rob
And I'm Rob. 

Neil
In this programme we're talking about finance and in particular planning for our future lifestyles. 

Rob
I can barely afford my current lifestyle! 

Neil
Same here, but perhaps we’ll pick up some good tips today. Before that though, a question. Being a millionaire may be an impossible dream for most of us, but when was the word first used in English? Was it:
a) 1600s
b) 1700s, or
c) 1800s
What do you think, Rob? 

Rob
I’m going to guess that it’s the 1600s as there have always been very wealthy people. 

Neil
Well, I’ll reveal the answer later. Now, the BBC Money Box programme covers all sorts of financial features. Recently they were talking about lifestyle financial planning, which is planning your finances to meet the kind of lifestyle you want to have. Julie Lord leads a financial planning organisation and she talked about the process of lifestyle financial planning. How many numbers does she say you need to start with? 

Julie Lord
Well, we would start by saying that we need to put together a lifetime cashflow forecast or a model. You just need four numbers: your income, your expenditureassetsliabilities and then we project forward to show you what sort of lifestyle you will have if you do nothing at all and if indeed you do some of the things that - perhaps an ISA or a pension or any other kind of financial product - might help you with. 

Neil
So how many numbers do you need? 

Rob
She says that you start with just four numbers. 

Neil
That’s right. The first of these numbers is your income, this is the money that you have coming in, your salary, for example. 

Rob
Then there is the number for your expenditure. This is the money you have going out for rent, food, entertainment, transport and so on. 

Neil
The next number was for assets. This is the cash value of things that you own. For example property, cars, jewellery as well as savings and investments, that kind of thing. 

Rob
And finally there is liabilities. This is the money that you owe, for example on credit cards or loans. 

Neil
So if you know these details, she says they can come up with a lifetime cashflow forecast, which is a calculation of how much money you can expect to have in the future and if that is enough to meet your expectations. Do you have those details? Do you know your numbers, Rob? 

Rob
I have a very detailed spreadsheet where I do list my income and expenditure. So I do know from month to month how much money I need and how much I can spend. 

Neil
That sounds very organised! What does it tell you about your future? 

Rob
Well, it just reminds me of exactly how much money I don’t have. It’s quite depressing! How about you, Neil? 

Neil
Oh, I live in blissful ignorance. I have no idea how big my debts are. I try not to worry about it. I kind of think I’m much too young to worry about it now and that as if by magic it will all work out in the end. So it would be difficult for me to come up those four numbers. Anyway, let’s listen to Julie Lord again describing the lifestyle financial planning process. 

Julie Lord
Well, we would start by saying that we need to put together a lifetime cashflow forecast or a model. You just need four numbers: your income, your expenditureassets, liabilitiesand then we project forward to show you what sort of lifestyle you will have if you do nothing at all and if indeed you do some of the things that - perhaps an ISA or a pension or any other kind of financial product - might help you with.

Neil
Is lifestyle financial planning only for older people with a good pension? Not according to Julie Lord. 

Julie Lord
Well, it’s not all about old age, is it? I mean there are people… we have quite a number of younger clients who come to us and say 'we just want to get financially organised, we've heard about all this stuff, these financial products, no idea really what they are or, more importantly, what they’re going to do for us, so can you give us a hand to help us look forward to see what will happen'. 

Neil
So she also has younger clients who ask for her company’s help. 

Rob
Yes, she uses the phrase, give us a hand, which means to help someone. If you give someone a hand, you help them. 

Neil
Exactly, in the way that I give you a hand with 6 Minute English. 

Rob
Well, I think I give you a hand rather than the other way around, Neil. 

Neil
Really, well let’s not fall out about it. Let’s listen to Julie Lord again. 

Julie Lord
Well, it’s not all about old age, is it? I mean, there are people… we have quite a number of younger clients who come to us and say 'we just want to get financially organised, we've heard about all this stuff, these financial products, no idea really what they are or, more importantly, what they’re going to do for us, so can you give us a hand to help us look forward to see what will happen'. 

Neil
It’s nearly time now to review our vocabulary, but first, let’s have the answer to our quiz question. When was the word millionaire first used in English? Was it:
a) 1600s
b) 1700s, or
c) 1800s
What did you think, Rob? 

Rob
Well, I guessed and said it was the 1600s. 

Neil
Well, not a good guess this time, I’m afraid. It’s actually a lot later. It was the 1800s when it was first used in English, though it had appeared in French in the 1700s. Now on with the vocabulary. 

Rob
Yes, we had a lot of financial terms in this programme. We had cashflow forecast. This is a calculation of how much money you can expect to have at a particular time in the future. 

Neil
And the cash flow forecast is based on knowing your income, which is the money you have coming in and your expenditure, the money you have going out. 

Rob
You also need to know your assets, which is the value of things you own as well as savings and investments. This is balanced against your liabilities, which is the term for the money that you owe, for example on credit cards. 

Neil
And finally, we had the expression to give someone a hand meaning to help someone. Well, that’s all from us in this programme. We look forward to your company next time. Until then, you can find us in all the usual places on social media, online and on our app. Just search for bbc learning enlish. Bye, and thanks to Rob for giving me a hand. 

Rob
No, thank you for giving me a hand. Bye!

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A city that people leave

Aug 18. 2019
Cosmopolitan heritage: Hussein, a 63-year-old local man who manages the Surtee Sunni Jamae Mosque, a pride of the Surti Muslim community.


Read more at https://www.thestar.com.my/opinion/columnists/ceritalah/2019/08/18/a-city-that-people-leave#VF4t2UtmIC83wLzh.99
Cosmopolitan heritage: Hussein, a 63-year-old local man who manages the Surtee Sunni Jamae Mosque, a pride of the Surti Muslim community. Read more at https://www.thestar.com.my/opinion/columnists/ceritalah/2019/08/18/a-city-that-people-leave#VF4t2UtmIC83wLzh.99

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By The Star/Asia News Network

1,113 Viewed

It’s estimated that some 10-12% of Myanmar’s population live or work overseas – a statistic comparable with the Philippines. MAWLAMYINE (or Moulmein) is one of those Southeast Asian cities like Sandakan, Bacolod and Songkhla; where the past looms large but the present seems faded and unpromising. The kinds of places that young people yearn to leave in search of jobs and money.
 
The capital of the three million-strong Mon State and having a population of just under 300, 000, the city has a slightly forlorn, neglected air. After all, its glory years were well over one-and-a-half centuries ago, between 1826 and 1852.

Back then, the British transformed a sleepy port city at the confluence of the Salween, Ataran and Gyaing Rivers into the capital of their Burmese possessions on the Tenasserim coast.

Orwell (back row, third from left), who was a colonial police officer in Mawlamyine, wrote ‘Burmese Days’ that captures the hypocrisy, racism and violence of the era.

Orwell (back row, third from left), who was a colonial police officer in Mawlamyine, wrote ‘Burmese Days’ that captures the hypocrisy, racism and violence of the era.

Present-day Mawlamyine is a six-hour overland journey from Yangon. It used to be a much more arduous trip, but improvements in the national highways and several new bridges have brought the two closer.

However, that hasn’t led to a significant increase in industries or jobs. Instead, it seems to have made it easier for people to leave.

Moreover, with the main border crossing at Mae Sot just four hours to the east (along a recently upgraded highway); Thailand, with its higher pay (reportedly some

USD8-10 per day, more than double anything available in Myanmar) has become even more accessible.

The iconic Kyaikthanlan Pagoda reportedly inspired Rudyard Kipling’s ‘Mandalay’ poem.

The iconic Kyaikthanlan Pagoda reportedly inspired Rudyard Kipling’s ‘Mandalay’ poem.

 

Given the proximity, perhaps it’s unsurprising that almost everyone Team Ceritalah met talked wistfully of the opportunities abroad. Indeed, it’s estimated that some 10-12% of Myanmar’s population live or work overseas – a statistic comparable with the Philippines.

The Mon State is Myanmar’s largest rubber producing state. Back in the boom days, this would have been a major source of income. However, with global prices languishing, the commodity has been anything but lucrative – even for the many traders who work to supply the vast Chinese market to the north.

The picturesque port was similarly sleepy. There was only one ship docked at the jetty for the duration of the Team Ceritalah trip. It’s hard to imagine that the city used to be such an important regional hub, not to mention a major shipbuilding centre drawing on the ample supplies of teak hardwood from the upper reaches of the Salween.

 

A young ferryman on the Attaran. Better roads have made Mawlamyine a city that many young people leave for better opportunities. — Photos by Team Ceritalah

A young ferryman on the Attaran. Better roads have made Mawlamyine a city that many young people leave for better opportunities. — Photos by Team Ceritalah

Burma was one of the wealthiest and most profitable of Britannia’s colonies. Rich in natural resources, Rangoon (now Yangon) rivalled the Empire’s greatest ports, from Bombay to Singapore and Liverpool.

However, the British weren’t a benign presence.

They were ruthless colonisers – destroying the indigenous elite, logging thousands of acres of virgin jungle and opening vast rice fields that were tended to by immigrant labour from India: especially Bengalis and Tamils. Contemporary Myanmar, its paranoia and pathology, must be read in the context of its turbulent and bloody past.

 

The First Baptist Church, its grey walls peeled and blackened with age, still serves congregations whose ancestors were converted by Victorian missionaries.

The First Baptist Church, its grey walls peeled and blackened with age, still serves congregations whose ancestors were converted by Victorian missionaries.

One of the most scathing indictments of the British was written by a Mawlamyine resident, Eric Blair (better known as George Orwell) a colonial police officer whose novel Burmese Days captures the hypocrisy, racism and violence of the era.

And yet, it’s the vestiges of the colonial times that remain intriguing. In an overwhelmingly Buddhist polity, there are traces of a more cosmopolitan past with Anglican, Catholic and Baptist churches, as well as a handful of mosques.

Joseph’s family first established themselves in the Ayeyarwady Region after the First Anglo-Burmese War, one of the many Catholic Tamils from southern India to do so in that period.

Joseph’s family first established themselves in the Ayeyarwady Region after the First Anglo-Burmese War, one of the many Catholic Tamils from southern India to do so in that period.

 

St Patrick’s Catholic Church, with its 19th Century bells intact, and the First Baptist Church, its grey walls peeled and blackened with age, still serve congregations whose ancestors were converted by Victorian missionaries.

“The history of this church is very important to me, ” said Joseph, a priest-in-training at St Patrick’s.

Joseph’s family first established themselves in the Ayeyarwady Region after the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826), one of the many Catholic Tamils from southern India to do so in that period. The community now stands at 50, 000, a drop in Myanmar’s melting pot of 53.5 million.

 

Improvements in the national highways and several new bridges have brought Yangon and Mawlamyine closer.

Improvements in the national highways and several new bridges have brought Yangon and Mawlamyine closer.

Further north of the church, Team Ceritalah met Hussein, a 63-year-old local man who manages the Surtee Sunni Jamae Mosque. He said with pride that the Surti Muslim community, originally from Gujarat, has owned the mosque since 1846, when it was built by the British for its Muslim civil servants ferried across the Bay of Bengal.

His own grandfather came from what is now Pakistan – this gives him a sense of attachment to the mosque, seeing it as linked to his family’s story.

There’s so much more to the city than just the iconic Kyaikthanlan Pagoda – which reportedly inspired Rudyard Kipling’s “Mandalay” poem – but virtually no promotion of its rich history.

The First Baptist Church had around 50 young members just two years ago but has since lost most of them to greener pastures in Yangon, Singapore, Australia, Thailand, or the US. Only about 15 remain.

Still – and perhaps ironically given their migrant backgrounds – Hussein and Joseph are anchored to the city.

“I want to stay here and take care of the church, ” Joseph said, standing sentinel-like at its warm green, open doors.

“People come here to find God and look at this old building. They should know its history. I want to take care of it and tell people about its story and culture.”

Read more at https://www.thestar.com.my/opinion/columnists/ceritalah/2019/08/18/a-city-that-people-leave

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August 19, 2019

 



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3. ความขัดแย้งส่วนตัวที่เกิดจากการเขียนเรื่อง แสดงความคิดเห็น หรือในกล่องรับส่งข้อความ (หลังไมค์) ต้องไม่นำมาโพสหรือขยายความต่อในบล็อก และการโพสเรื่องส่วนตัว และการแสดงความคิดเห็น ต้องใช้ภาษาที่สุภาพเท่านั้น
4. พิจารณาเนื้อหาที่จะโพสก่อนเผยแพร่ให้รอบคอบ ว่าจะไม่เป็นการละเมิดกฎหมายใดใด และปิดคอมเมนต์หากจำเป็นโดยเฉพาะเรื่องที่มีเนื้อหาพาดพิงสถาบัน
5.การนำเรื่อง ภาพ หรือคลิปวิดีโอ ที่มิใช่ของตนเองมาลงในบล็อก ควรอ้างอิงแหล่งที่มา และ หลีกเลี่ยงการเผยแพร่สิ่งที่ละเมิดลิขสิทธิ์ ไม่ว่าจะเป็นรูปแบบหรือวิธีการใดก็ตาม 6. เนื้อหาและความคิดเห็นในบล็อก ไม่เกี่ยวข้องกับทีมงานผู้ดำเนินการจัดทำเว็บไซต์ โดยถือเป็นความรับผิดชอบทางกฎหมายเป็นการส่วนตัวของสมาชิก
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OKnation ขอสงวนสิทธิ์ในการปิดบล็อก ลบเนื้อหาและความคิดเห็น ที่ขัดต่อความดังกล่าวข้างต้น โดยไม่ต้องชี้แจงเหตุผลใดๆ ต่อเจ้าของบล็อกและเจ้าของความคิดเห็นนั้นๆ
   

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