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Flora of Thailand : overveiw

Thailand is one of the tropical countries teeming with diverse flora and vegetation. The diverse vascular plants of Thailand with estimated number of no less than 10,000 species, have been recorded and published in continuation in the Flora of Thailand since 1970. The physical features of Thailand range from the sea level to 2565 m (Doi Inthanon) elevation, and from high mountains along the Tenasserim Range in the north to flat top sandstone mountains in the northeast, through the flat alluvial plains in the central, the eastern adjacent to Cambodia, and in the peninsula to the Malaysian border. Most of the mountains are situated in the north including the three highest peaks: Doi Inthanon (2565 m), Doi Pha Hompok (2285 m), and Doi Chiang Dao (2175 m), and several peaks about 2,000 m elevation. The highest montanins in southeastern region is Khao Soi Dao (1675 m) in Chanthaburi, and in the peninsula is Khao Luang (1835 m) in Nakhon Si Thammarat. The country has a monsoon climate with a markedly dry season of 3-5 months, except in the southeast in Trat provincial areas and the peninsula where rains are more or less prevailing throughout the year. Most parts of the country have three seasons, i.e. rainy, cool and dry except for the southeast and peninsula which have only two seasons, i.e. rainy and dry. Temperatures are varied with the seasons and elevations. More generally, humid sub-tropical and tropical climates are applicable to most parts of the country.

At present, the natural forest cover is an estimated 25 % of the total land area. Vast forest areas have been converted into secondary vegetation mainly by the urban developments and the expansion of agricultural lands. Nevertheless, the vegetation of Thailand is varied and can be classified into evergreen and deciduous forest types which are basically based on varying moisture gradients, temperatures and altitudes. The names of the dominant tree species are often used for associations and sub-types of vegetation, more technically, the characteristics of floristic composition is based, such as tropical evergreen rain forest, seasonal evergreen forest (or dry evergreen forest), montane forest, mangrove forest, peat swamp forest, strand vegetation, mixed deciduous forest and deciduous dipterocarp forest. In the north, type forests are ranging from mixed deciduous, deciduous dipterocap to seasonal evergreen forests below approximate 1,000 m, and montane forest above approximate 1,000 m. The mountains in northeastern region is characterized by plateau-top, the vegetation is mainly covered by deciduous dipterocarp forest. In central part, the region is mostly under agricultural cultivation. The southeast and peninsular regions are mostly covered by evergreen forests. Other vegetation types, pine forests are scattered throughout the country except in the peninsula, moreover mangrove and strand vegetations are restricted to the southeastern and peninsular coasts, whereas peat swamp forest is represented in an extensive patch in Narathiwat province near Malaysian border.

Botanically, Thailand is included in the Indochinese subdivision of the continental Southeast Asia, and phytogeographically, is situated between two floristic regions, viz. Malesian and Indochinese including Myanmar and South China. Thailand is considered as a collective centre of botanic diversity designated by three floristic regions: Indo-Burmese, Indo-Chinese, and Malesian. As a result, Thailand shares its flora with the neighbouring countries. The number of endemic species is, therefore, not high. However, the richness of flora of Thailand comprising of estimated 10,000 vascular plant species, represented by 275 families of spermatophytes and 36 families of pteridophytes. In deciduous forests, plant diversity is rather poor. The main canopy trees of both mixed deciduos and deciduous dipterocarp forests are dominant by the dipterocarp and leguminous tree species.

During the past decades, the much increased population in Thailand combining with economic and infrastructure development has been responsible for forest retreats in every region of the country. Since the establishment of the Royal Forest Department in 1896 and the inauguration of the Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation in 2002, both departments are authorized as the main agencies for the forest and wildlife conservation and sustainable management of the forest resources. At present, there are 147 national parks, 108 forest parks, 57 wildlife sanctuaries, 49 non-hunting areas, 16 botanical gardens and 55 arboreta throughout the country covering over 60 % of the remaining forest areas and containing most of natural resources of ecological importance in the country.

Today I bring the article of Thailand's flora for you as above you may see. Because the forest is far from sight. And we know not so much the way to the prevention of forest. Please spent time to read it as well as you have.

 And we do not forget to thanks together to Google Translate and G Grammarly.

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FRANCE 24 English – LIVE – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/0fKyrdQ15gs

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Trump Administration Announces Plans to Ban Flavored E-cigarettes

September 11, 2019

President Donald Trump and first lady Melania Trump listen as acting FDA Commissioner Ned Sharpless talks about a plan to ban most flavored e-cigarettes, in the Oval Office of the White House, Wednesday, Sept. 11, 2019, in Washington. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci
President Donald Trump and first lady Melania Trump listen as acting FDA Commissioner Ned Sharpless talks about a plan to ban most flavored e-cigarettes, in the Oval Office of the White House, Wednesday, Sept. 11, 2019, in Washington. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci
 
Trump Administration Announces Plans to Ban Flavored E-cigarettes
 

American President Donald Trump says his administration will propose banning thousands of flavors of electronic cigarettes, known as e-cigarettes.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will develop rules to remove all e-cigarette flavors, except tobacco, from the U.S. market.

Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar made the announcement Wednesday. He spoke at the White House during an appearance with the president, first lady Melania Trump and the acting chief of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Ned Sharpless.

E-cigarettes are a popular substitute for traditional smoking products. They have been available in the United States for more than 10 years.

The electronic devices heat liquid into vapor -- very small particles that users inhale. Many users vape with a liquid that includes flavoring, nicotine and other chemicals. Nicotine is a natural chemical found in tobacco plants.

Trump said vaping has become such a problem that he wants parents to be informed of what is happening.

“People are going to watch what we’re saying and parents are going to be a lot tougher with respect to their children,” Trump said.

It will take several weeks to develop the proposed flavor restrictions.

Trump’s first public comments on vaping come as U.S. officials investigate hundreds of breathing problems in people who have used e-cigarettes and other vaping devices.

No single device, ingredient or additive has been identified, although many cases involve marijuana vaping devices. There is still little research on the long-term effects of vaping.

The administration proposal would only affect nicotine vaping products, which are subject to FDA rules.

The FDA has had the power to ban vaping flavors since 2016, but up until now resisted calls to take that step. Agency officials instead said they were studying whether flavors could help people stop smoking traditional cigarettes.

But many parents, politicians and health activists have called for action on flavors. They argue that flavoring is largely to blame for a rise in vaping among U.S. teenagers.

“We simply have to remove these attractive flavored products from the marketplace until they can secure FDA approval, if they can,” Azar said. He added that flavored products could seek the agency’s permission to re-enter the market.

Azar said the administration would let tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes remain available for adults. But he said that if children begin using those products, “we will take enforcement action there also.”

A 2009 law banned all flavors from traditional cigarettes except menthol. But that law did not affect e-cigarettes, which were then a small percentage of the tobacco market.

A ban on flavors would represent a huge blow to the vaping industry. Juul, one of the best known manufacturers, has grown into a huge business by selling mint, fruit and dessert flavored-nicotine products.

Juul and other vaping companies argue that their products are supposed to help adult smokers reduce their dependence on traditional paper-and-tobacco cigarettes. But there is little evidence that e-cigarettes are effective for helping people stop smoking.

Federal law bars e-cigarette and all other tobacco sales to those under age 18. But last year, one study found that 1 in 5 high school students reported vaping in the past month. Government health officials have called the rising in vaping an “epidemic.”

More than 80 percent of underage teens who use e-cigarettes say they chose the product because it “comes in flavors that I like,” studies have found.

I’m Ashley Thompson.

George Grow adapted this story for VOA Learning English based on a report by The Associated Press. Ashley Thompson was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page

_____________________________________________________________

 

Words in This Story

 

flavor – n. a substance that is added to food or drink to give it a desired taste

substitute – n. a person or a thing that takes the place of someone or something else

inhale – v. to breathe in

ingredient – n. a part of any mixture or combination

attractive – adj. appealing or pleasing to the senses

dessert – n. a usually sweet treat served at the end of a meal

epidemic – n. a situation in which a disease spreads very quickly and affects a large number of people

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6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

Why we push buttons

EPISODE 181220 / 20 DEC 2018

Introduction

Buttons are what we have on our clothes to fasten them but the word is also used for things that we push to make things happen. Things like your bedside alarm, radio, toaster, kettle. We press hundreds of buttons every week without thinking about it. Sometimes we are just drawn to pushing them, but as this programme discusses, some people have a button phobia.

This week's question

Not everyone likes buttons, particularly the ones we have on our clothes. It’s a recognised phobia.

What is this fear called? Is it

A: buttonophobia
B: koumpounophobia
C: coulrophobia

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary

buttons
small, usually round, objects we use to fasten clothes, also objects we can press to make different things happen, e.g. You press a button to call a lift

temptation
something that makes you feel like you want to do something you shouldn’t, e.g. Having a big red button with the words ‘Don’t Press’ on it, would be a big temptation, I’d just want to press it.

convenient
something that is convenient is easy to use without difficulty, e.g. the buttons on our lift are convenient to use.

fidgeting
not being able to stay still, always moving around to get comfortable or prevent boredom. e.g. My mum always told me to stop fidgeting in the cinema as it was disturbing the other customers.

digital
fingers and toes are digits – digital = having fingers and toes

grooming
making ourselves look nice by cleaning, washing and doing our hair, for example

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word for word transcript 

Rob
Hello. This is 6 Minute English and I'm Rob.

Neil
And I'm Neil.

Rob
Today we’re talking about buttons.

Neil
Yes, buttonsButtons are what we have on our clothes to fasten them but the word is also used for things that we push to make things happen.

Rob
Things like your bedside alarm, radio, toaster, kettle. We press hundreds of buttons every week without thinking about it. Not everyone likes buttons though, particularly the ones we have on our clothes. It’s a recognised phobia. What is this fear called? Is it

A: buttonophobia      

B: koumpounophobia, or

C: coulrophobia

Any ideas Neil?

Neil
Er – I think I’ve got a fear of pronouncing these words! No idea what the answer is, I think buttonophobia is much too obvious – so it’s one of the others – or is it? It’s a hard one.

Rob
Well, I'll have the answer later in the programme. Thinking Allowed is a BBC Radio 4 programme which covers a range of interesting topics. Recently, they featured a discussion about buttons and how important they are to everyday life. Steven Connor, Professor of English at the University of Cambridge, was on the programme and he talked about appeal of buttons. What does say about children and buttons?

Professor Steven Connor
We do love buttons and I think the pleasure and the temptation of buttons… this temptation and everyone feels it, which is why buttons have to be very convenient. On the other hand they have to be kept away from children, so they've got to be put high up on the wall, and buttons that really matter have to be made quite hard to push – like put behind glass or something.

Rob
OK. What does he say about children and buttons?

Neil
That they have to be kept away from them! As I said before, I loved pressing buttons as a child. I would press any that I saw, so important ones did have to be out of my reach.

Rob
Yes, he said buttons are a temptation. A temptation is something that makes you want to do something and it’s often used when it’s something you shouldn’t really do. So buttons that lead to potentially dangerous or serious consequences, like a fire alarm, need to be protected, maybe behind glass, so temptation doesn’t get the better of us.

Neil
But many buttons have a useful, practical purpose in everyday life, like calling a lift - so these buttons have to be easy to use without difficulty. The adjective for this is convenient. These everyday buttons have to be convenient.

Rob
Professor Connor goes on to say a bit more about why buttons are so appealing. What’s his opinion?

Professor Steven Connor
You know what I think? I think it's down to the fidgeting instinct of very digital or manual creatures. I think we want to fidget with things and adjust them, we want to make them slightly better…  I guess it's the grooming instinct in apes.

Rob
So then, why can’t we resist buttons?

Neil
Because as humans we have a fidgeting instinct. We can’t stay still for very long, we need to move around a lot because we are very digital creatures.

Rob
The use of digital though, is nothing to do with modern online technology, is it?

Neil
No, a digit is a finger or toe. So we are digital creatures – we have fingers and we like to use them.

Rob
And one thing other digital creatures do, creatures like apes, is grooming. That is they use their hands to clean the body hair of other apes. They look through the hair for insects and bugs and pull them out and eat them. But we can also use the word grooming for humans, someone who is well-groomedfor example is neat and tidy, clean and well presented. Here’s Professor Connor again.

Professor Steven Connor
You know what I think? I think it's down to the fidgeting instinct of very digital or manual creatures. I think we want to fidget with things and adjust them, we want to make them slightly better… I guess it's the grooming instinct in apes.

Rob
Before we wrap up, time to get the answer to this week’s question. Some people have a fear of buttons, it’s a recognised phobia, but what’s it called? Is it

A: buttonophobia      

B: koumpounophobia, or

C: coulrophobia

And Neil, you said? 

Neil
I didn’t, but I don’t think it can be ‘buttonophobia’, that’d be too easy. And I think coulrophobia is a fear of clowns, so I’m going for the other one - koumpounophobia.

Rob
That it right. Buttonophobia is a made up word, and as you said, coulrophobia is a fear of clowns. Right, now let’s review today’s vocabulary.

Neil
We’ve been talking about buttons. These can be small round things we use to fasten our clothes, or the things that we push to make something happen.

Rob
Buttons can be a temptation. We see one, we want to push it. So a temptation is something that makes us want to do something we know we shouldn’t.

Neil
And then we had the adjective convenient. Something that is convenient is easy to use without difficulty. For example the buttons to call a lift are at a very convenient height, they can be reached easily.

Rob
Professor Connor went on to talk about our fidgeting instinct. As humans we love to fidget, we like to keep moving around, we can’t stay still for very long and we love to do stuff with our hands.

Neil
The professor talked about us being digital creatures, which means creatures with fingers – a digit is another word for a finger or toe.

Rob
And finally we had grooming.

Neil
This is the habit of making ourselves look nice by cleaning, washing and doing our hair. It’s something some animals, such as apes, do for each other.

Rob
Well the button here in the studio is flashing, which tells me it’s time to wrap up for today.  Do join us next time and if you can’t wait, you can always find us on Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube our App and of course on our website bbclearningenglish.com. Bye for now.


Neil
Bye! Can I just press that button? 

Rob

Oh, go on then, if you like!

 

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Concerns rise over microplastics in stomachs of mackerel

Sep 11. 2019
Photo Courtesy of  The 3rd Marine National Park Operation Centre in Trang
Photo Courtesy of The 3rd Marine National Park Operation Centre in Trang

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By Khanitta Sitong
The Nation

The discovery of microplastics in the stomachs of mackerel caught in Trang Sea have raised concerns, but the 3rd Marine National Park Operation Centre urged Thais on Wednesday to refrain from panicking and shunning mackerel.

The centre urged people to instead get full awareness of the problem and join in tackling the sea garbage crisis.

The centre plans to expand its study to cover Trang's famous edible clams such as "Hoy Tapao" donax scortum clams, "Hoy Chakteen" wing shells, and "Hoy Phisua" butterfly clams.

Thai social media had widely shared and discussed the centre’s discovery of an estimated 78 pieces of microplastic on average in the stomachs of mackerel caught from Hat Chao Mai Beach.

Research assistant Saowalak Khaosaeng, 30, said the study stemmed from the centre's daily collection of garbage at sea to separate for types and weight to monitor the quantity of sea waste.

Realising that the garbage may have an impact on the food chain in the sea off Hat Chao Mai beach, which is the habitat of a large number of affordable commercial fish, the researchers in the past few months took 60 mackerel from fishermen and conducted lab tests on the stomachs of the fish, she said. They found that each mackerel's stomach contained approximately 78 pieces of microplastic invisible to the naked eye -- each 1 millimetre to 5mm -- as the salty seawater broke down the larger plastic garbage into microplastics. The mackerel mistook these tiny pieces for food and ate them, Saowalak explained.

The study did not cover the physical impact on the fish or the origin of such microplastics but aimed to raise public awareness about the state of the current ecosystem and encourage people to apply appropriate garbage disposal methods, she added.

 

Meanwhile, fresh fish shops at the Nakhon Trang Municipality Market on Wednesday were still buzzing with shoppers in the morning. Mackerel seller Atchara Lomkhong, 53, said she had heard about the discovery of microplastics in the stomachs of mackerel but she was yet to see any impact on her daily sales of mackerel at Bt120 per kilogram. She said this development was an urgent reminder for all to refrain from discarding plastic waste into rivers and seas.

Regular shopper Kornwan Thatchamongkol, 37, said she felt a bit wary after the discovery because she and her family ate a lot of mackerel every week. While saying she would continue to consume mackerel, she urged people not to dispose plastic garbage into the river and sea as they could create pollution.

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Thammanat claims he ‘just slept’ in Aussie lock-up

Sep 11. 2019
Thammanat Prompao
Thammanat Prompao

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By The Nation

At a parliamentary questioning session on Wednesday (September 11), Deputy Agriculture Minister Thammanat Prompao insisted that his 1993 jail sentence in Australia had been settled and that he would like to continue working as a Cabinet member.

Thammanat had explain himself to Seri Ruam Thai party-list MP Pol Lieutenant Wisanun Moungpraesri, who is holding Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha responsible for nominating Thammanat for a Cabinet post even though he allegedly lacks the qualifications required of an MP.

The questioning stemmed from an Australian media report this week saying that Thammanat had served four years in a Sydney jail in the 1990s after allegedly pleading guilty to conspiring to import a commercial quantity of heroin and has reportedly been blacklisted from re-entering the country.

However, Thammanat insists he never confessed to smuggling heroin following his arrest in April 1993 and that his case had never been taken to court. As per a pre-bargaining process, he said, he was “locked up” for eight months and then “I was sent to take care of some younger detainees. After this work, I would return to sleep in the place the officials had prepared for me”.

The minister said it took four years for the case to wrap up.

“The Australian court just held me in the pre-bargaining process until the inquiry process was complete. After it ended, I still wanted to stay there with my family,” he said, adding that he has undergone many rounds of clearing his name and now wanted to live in the present and work to serve the Thai public.

“I won’t allow something that happened nearly 30 years ago to ruin my ideology to spend the rest of my life serving people. No matter what position I am in, I vow to work to repay my motherland and uphold Thailand’s three main pillars – nation, religion and monarchy,” he said.

 

Earlier on Wednesday, Seri Ruam Thai Party leader Pol General Seripisut Temiyawet told reporters outside Parliament in the Kiak Kai area that if he were prime minister, he would resign to take responsibility for proposing a person with a criminal past like Thammanat and have him royally appointed as Cabinet member.

“You can’t argue that this is a matter under a court procedure from outside the country. Those involved in drug trafficking are all bad. How can such a person hold a minister’s position?” Seripisut asked.

As for Thammanat’s claim that this is being used to discredit and smear his name, Seripisut said: “I don’t want to say that I was the person who tipped the foreign media. After all, the Australian media already had some information. When the government will not do anything, I as the opposition must find an indirect way to check this. If you want to scold anyone for this, just scold me.”

When asked whether he was worried about being sued, he said: “How can a drug inmate sue an innocent person?” He also said he had just asked the media to find information and had not guided or paid them. “I admit to raising this point with the Australian media. I cannot stand by to see the government supporting this person as a minister.”

 

Meanwhile, Thai Civilised Party leader Mongkolkit Suksintharanon said he was ready to back opposition MPs in their request to have Thammanat investigated and punished if he is found to have committed a wrongdoing, even though he considers him a brother. However, he said, people should first wait to study the Australian court documents, which can be requested by the executive or legislative branch.

Deputy Prime Minister Wissanu Krea-ngam, meanwhile, revealed that Thammanat had provided evidence to explain his qualifications to the Secretariat of the Cabinet before taking up the Cabinet post, but he does not know if the Australian court verdict was included.

Meanwhile, political activists Ekkachai Hongkangwan and Chokchai Paiboonratchata visited the Election Commission (EC) head office on Wednesday and asked the agency to look into several points related to Thammanat, such as how he managed to get reinstated in the Army and then got promoted in 1997 after returning to Thailand, why he used the military rank of captain in the documents he submitted to join the current Cabinet even though his title was revoked in a Royal Gazette announcement in September 1998 and why his Thai ID card number starts with 4 when according to his year of birth – 1965 – it should start with 3.

Chokchai also urged Thammanat to be honest about what he did in Australia. “How can be we sure you won’t lie to people when running the country?” he asked.

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FINISHED

September 12, 2019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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3. ความขัดแย้งส่วนตัวที่เกิดจากการเขียนเรื่อง แสดงความคิดเห็น หรือในกล่องรับส่งข้อความ (หลังไมค์) ต้องไม่นำมาโพสหรือขยายความต่อในบล็อก และการโพสเรื่องส่วนตัว และการแสดงความคิดเห็น ต้องใช้ภาษาที่สุภาพเท่านั้น
4. พิจารณาเนื้อหาที่จะโพสก่อนเผยแพร่ให้รอบคอบ ว่าจะไม่เป็นการละเมิดกฎหมายใดใด และปิดคอมเมนต์หากจำเป็นโดยเฉพาะเรื่องที่มีเนื้อหาพาดพิงสถาบัน
5.การนำเรื่อง ภาพ หรือคลิปวิดีโอ ที่มิใช่ของตนเองมาลงในบล็อก ควรอ้างอิงแหล่งที่มา และ หลีกเลี่ยงการเผยแพร่สิ่งที่ละเมิดลิขสิทธิ์ ไม่ว่าจะเป็นรูปแบบหรือวิธีการใดก็ตาม 6. เนื้อหาและความคิดเห็นในบล็อก ไม่เกี่ยวข้องกับทีมงานผู้ดำเนินการจัดทำเว็บไซต์ โดยถือเป็นความรับผิดชอบทางกฎหมายเป็นการส่วนตัวของสมาชิก
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OKnation ขอสงวนสิทธิ์ในการปิดบล็อก ลบเนื้อหาและความคิดเห็น ที่ขัดต่อความดังกล่าวข้างต้น โดยไม่ต้องชี้แจงเหตุผลใดๆ ต่อเจ้าของบล็อกและเจ้าของความคิดเห็นนั้นๆ
   

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