When I studied in a mechanical engineer, a teacher who just come back from America, he explained testing for eighter enough torque by a test called 'go nor go'. That is the last torque against the limit talk. However, presently no one understands the phrase 'go nor go' that I said at first. Do such the phrase still remain? What is the fact of the phrase 'go nor go'?
Many thanks to Google Translate together with G Grammarly.
How do you use nor in a sentence?
A “nor” usually follows a “neither” when they're used in the same sentence (1). For example, you might say, “I like neither hot dogs nor mustard.” You may also use “nor” if you're talking about more than two items, but you must repeat “nor” after each element (2).1 ม.ค. 2553
Farmer Ruth Mylroie watches a chicken laying an egg with a young visitor during a school tour of New Harmony Farm. This farm is known for its humane treatment of its chickens.
Hello and welcome to Words and Their Stories.
Each week, we tell the story of English language words and expressions – some old, and others new.
Today we talk about a proverb often used in American English.
A proverb is a short, well-known saying that offers a piece of advice. Our example of a proverb takes us to a farm – a chicken farm, to be exact.
Our explanation is part science, part folklore.
First, the science.
You probably know that chickens come from eggs. A female chicken or hen lays eggs and then they hatch into chicks. Well, not all of them. Some eggs do not have a baby bird.
So, at our farm, a hen produces 15 eggs. If the farmer counts the eggs, she might expect to have 15 chicks once the eggs are hatched. But then five of those eggs do not hatch. Her expectations were not met, so she feels disappointed. She tells her friend how sad she feels. The friend may say to her, “Well, don’t count your chicken before they hatch.
Another way of saying this proverb is: “Don’t count your chickens until they are hatched.”
So, this proverb means you should not depend on something that has yet to happen. It is unwise to make plans based on something that hasn’t happened. Another meaning of this proverb is this: Do not assume to have everything you want until you actually have it in your hands.
Now, let’s talk about the folklore part of our explanation.
“Don’t count your chickens until they are hatched” is a very old saying. Language experts say it appears in different forms and in many different cultures. It is also used in Aesop's Fables, a collection of stories from between 1,300 and 1,400 years ago.
The fable we are talking about is known as “The Milkmaid and Her Pail.” A long time ago, a young woman carried a bucket of milk on her head. As she walked, the milkmaid dreamed of a better life. She wanted to be rich. So, she thought she could sell her milk and then use the money to buy chickens. With chickens she could sell eggs and earn more money!
With lots of money, the milkmaid could shake her head “no” to all the men in her village who wanted her hand in marriage. The young woman was so caught up in her thoughts that she actually shook her head “no.” This caused the pail of milk to fall from her head and crash to the ground. Along with it -- her dreams of becoming rich and independent.
When she told her mother what happened, her mother said, “My child, do not count your chickens before they are hatched.”
So, that is the folklore from Aesop’s Fables. Now, let’s hear how to use this expression in everyday speech.
John and Samantha are friends. Both are looking for jobs. John just had a job interview the day before and cannot wait to tell Samantha all about it.
Samantha, how is your job search going?
It’s going okay. I spoke with two potential employers last week and I should hear something back soon. But for now I’m still saving all the money I can from my part-time work. How about you?
I had a great interview yesterday! In fact, afterward, the woman I spoke with talked as if I was already her employee!
Wow! That’s great news, John. Good for you!
Thanks! And the best thing … the pay is great. I’ll be able to buy a townhouse. In fact, I have an appointment today to look at one, right near my new job! I’ll have a full-time job and a new home in less than a month!
Wait a minute, John. Did you actually get something in writing from the company?
Well, not yet.
Did you actually sign a contract?
Well, no but …
A little friendly advice, John. You don’t officially have the job. So, try not to count your chickens before they hatch.
What do you mean? The job is a sure thing.
Nothing is guaranteed, John. So, you know, don’t get your hopes up. That way, you won’t be disappointed if things don’t work out.
So, I should probably return the expensive clothes and briefcase I just bought for the job?
I think so. Maybe for right now.
Let’s keep our fingers crossed for John. Hopefully, all his eggs will hatch and he’ll get that high-paying job.
And that’s all we have for you today. Join us again next week for another Words and Their Stories.
I’m Anna Matteo.
Ibrahim Onefeko wrote this story. Anna Matteo and George Grow were the editors. The song at the end is “Don’t Count Your Chickens Before They Hatch,” written and performed by country singer/songwriter Tommy Ray.
The Let’s Teach English video series offers free online training for English language educators worldwide. It is based on the Women Teaching Women English text for adult, beginning level learners. Voice of America and the University of Oregon are partners on this project. The course includes:
1. An introductory video which summarizes the main topics of second language teaching and shows classroom examples of the topics.
2. Ten 5-minute video episodes based on the units of Women Teaching Women English. Each of these episodes provides a model of communicative language teaching through simulated language classroom interaction. The course can be used by men and women.
3. English teaching materials from the course, Women Teaching Women English. Thestudent book, teacher’s manual, and audio files can be accessed for each unit. This course is the result of a collaboration between the University of Oregon American English Institute and the U.S. Department of State.
Click on the image below for more details about the course and these teaching topics.
Theory of Constructivism
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Method
Learner-Centered Practices and Active Learning
Let's Teach English Introduction
Tra Mi: You have been watching the videos. Your assignment was to choose a teaching topic, explain it in your own words, and give an example of where you see it in the video course. Can you tell me what you chose?
Rebecca Sui: I chose Constructivism.
Linh Dan: Mine is about the Communicative Language Teaching Method.
Laila Azimi: I looked for some Learner-Centered Practices, such as teaching students how to use learning strategies.
Tra Mi: Very good. Since Let’s Teach English is built on the theory of Constructivism, why don’t you start?
Rebecca Sui: Sounds good to me!
Rebecca Sui: When I think of building or “constructing” something, I see a house or a school. To me, constructivism means my students are taking in new ideas and new words, and building their own understanding of the world around them.
I found an example of this in Unit 4.
First, the teacher prepares students to read a story by talking about the content. She has her students bring in pictures of technology that they know about. In this way, students start with things they already know about. Then they can connect that to the new information in the story. The teacher gets her students interested in the story by previewing the title and images.
Rebecca Sui: The students know about technology and the internet. But, they do not know that someone could learn from the internet without having an internet connection. They read a story and learn about a mobile library called SolarSPELL, where information from the internet could be stored. Finally, her students make a picture to explain the SolarSPELL library in their own words.
Rebecca Sui: I think this is a good example. They knew something to start with, but they had to construct or build on their knowledge. They read about the Solar SPELL and then they told about it in their own words. They learned some new words in English and they also learned about a new place, Vanuatu.
Tra Mi: Okay, great start on constructivism. Who wants to talk next?
Linh Dan: I do! I decided to talk about the Communicative Language Teaching method.
Linh Dan: In Unit 5, the students do role-plays in groups, and each group has different information. That way, their role plays are all different. This is a great example of a real world task and Communicative Language Teaching. Students use their own words to shop, sell, and bargain in the marketplace.
Video clip of shopping role play
Linh Dan: The students were in a real-world situation in this unit. They were using English in a meaningful way to do the task. They had a clear purpose for communicating. And, just as important, the activity was learner-centered because they had choices in the language and actions that they used.
Tra Mi: Thank you, Linh Dan! Now, for Layla’s presentation.
Laila Azimi: I want to tell you what I learned about Learner-Centered Teaching and Active Learning for students. In Unit 9, the students practice an interview for a job. They each choose the job that they want to get. Then, they practice the learning strategy of “predicting” in two ways. They predict what kinds of questions can occur in their interviews. And, during the role-play, the listening group predicts what questions might come next.
Laila Azimi: We saw one student’s interview for the job she chose. We know that every student chose a different job, did research about that job, and wrote her own interview questions.
Tra Mi: What was the teacher’s role in this?
Laila Azimi: The teacher’s job was to support the learners in their choices and research. She also gave them more control over their learning by teaching them to apply strategies. In this case, they predicted hard questions for the interview. They can use these strategies later in other real-world situations.
Tra Mi: Thank you, all, for sharing these important topics of language teaching:
Communicative Language Teaching
Learner-Centered Practices and Active Learning
Tra Mi: So, let’s start with the first unit!
Laila Azimi, Linh Dan, and Rebecca Sui: Yes, let’s teach English together!
Comments and Questions
We want to hear from you. Where do you teach? What are your biggest problems or successes? Write to us in the Comments section or email us with your comments or questions about Let's Teach English.
Humans work together all over the world. When we do, we tend to organise ourselves into a structure so we can work more effectively. In jobs everywhere you can find bosses, managers and workers.
But does this actually help us work better? It appears that chickens can help us learn the answer. What can chickens teach us about hierarchies? You'd be surprised! Neil and Catherine discuss the chicken experiment and teach you new vocabulary.
This week's question
What is the record number of eggs laid by one chicken in a year? Is it
Listen to the programme to find out the answer.
hierarchy a way of organising people at different levels, for example workers in a company
pecking order a phrase to describe levels of importance in an organisation
Note: This is not a word for word transcript
Neil Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English, I'm Neil.
Catherine And I'm Catherine.
Neil Catherine, what's the connection between hierarchies, managers and chickens?
Catherine Well, I don't know Neil, but I'm, sure you're going to tell me.
Neil First of all, could you explain for our listeners what a hierarchy is?
Catherine Of course! A hierarchy is a way of organising people. For example, in a company, where there are people working at different levels. You've got bosses, managers and workers. The workers do the work and the managers have meetings that stop the workers doing the work!
Neil But where do the chickens come in? We'll find out shortly, but first here is today's question and it is – surprise, surprise – about chickens. What is the record number of eggs laid by one chicken in a year? Is it:
a: 253 b: 371 c: 426
What do you think Catherine?
Catherine Well, I think most chickens lay an egg once a day, so I think it's 371.
Neil Well, we will have an answer later in the programme. Now, for hierarchies and chickens. In the radio programme The Joy of 9 to 5, produced by Somethin' Else for the BBC, entrepreneur Margaret Heffernan described an experiment. In this experiment, researchers compared the egg production of a group of average chickens to a group of super-chickens. That's chickens with an above average egg production. Which was the most successful? Here's Margaret Heffernan, and by the way, the noun for a group of chickens is a flock.
Margaret Heffernan He compares the two flocks over six generations. The average flock just gets better and better and better. Egg production increases dramatically. The super-flock of super-chickens, at the end of six generations, all but three are dead, because the other three have killed the rest. They've achieved their individual productivity by suppressing the productivity of the rest. And that's what we do at work.
Neil Which flock was most successful?
Catherine Well, the super-flock actually killed each other, so it turned out that the average flock laid more eggs in total and was more successful.
Neil Yes, but why was that?
Catherine Well, the super-chickens must have seen their other flock members not as colleagues, but as competitors. Now to understand this, we have to start with the word productivity. This noun refers to the amount of work that's done. So, on an individual level, the super-chickens achieved productivity because they suppressed the productivity of their flock members. Suppressed here means they 'stopped the other chickens from being productive' by killing them.
Neil So, what do we learn from this experiment?
Catherine Well, Margaret Heffernan suggests that we see this kind of behaviour in the human workplace. When everyone is equal, productivity is high, but as soon as there's a hierarchy - as soon as there are managers - things can go wrong because not all managers see their role as making life easier for the workers. They demonstrate their productivity as managers, by interfering with the productivity of the workers.
Neil But there are other experiments which show that chickens are productive in a hierarchy. How are those hierarchies different though? Here's Margaret Heffernan again.
Margaret Heffernan So chickens have an inbuilt or, if you like, an inherited hierarchy - that's where we get the term pecking order from. But it's one that they create among themselves, rather than one that's imposed upon them.
Neil So, which hierarchy works, at least for chickens?
Catherine Well, the best hierarchy is one that isn't imposed. That means a good hierarchy isn't forced on the chickens. They do well when they create the hierarchy themselves, naturally. They work out the pecking order themselves.
Neil Pecking order is a great phrase. We use it to describe levels of importance in an organisation. The more important you are, the higher in the pecking order you are. Where does this phrase originate?
Catherine Well, pecking describes what chickens do with their beaks. They hit or bite other chickens with them. And the most important or dominant chickens, peck all the others. The top chicken does all the pecking, middle-level chickens get pecked and do some pecking themselves, and some chickens are only pecked by other chickens. So, there is a definite pecking order in chickens.
Neil Right, time to review this week's vocabulary, but before that let's have the answer to the quiz. I asked what the record number of eggs laid by a single chicken in a year was. The options were:
a: 253 b: 371 c: 426
What did you say, Catherine?
Catherine I said 371.
Neil Well, lucky you! You're definitely top of the pecking order, aren't you? Because you are right!
Catherine That's a lot of eggs!
Neil Indeed. Now, the vocabulary. We are talking about hierarchies - a way to organise a society or workplace with different levels of importance.
Catherine An expression with a similar meaning is pecking order, which relates to how important someone, or a chicken, is, within a hierarchy.
Neil A group of chickens is a flock. It's also the general collective noun for birds as well, not just chickens.
Catherine Another of our words was the noun productivity, which refers to the amount of work that is done.
Neil And if you suppress someone's productivity, you stop them from being as productive as they could be.
Catherine And finally, there was the verb to impose. If you impose something, you force it on people. For example, the government imposed new taxes on fuel.
Neil Well that is the end of the programme. For more from us though, check out Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and of course, our App! Don't forget the website as well - bbclearningenglish.com. See you soon, bye.
Govt confident Parliament will pass budget bill but opposition says it fails to tackle challenging
Oct 17. 2019
By The Nation
Prime Minister General Prayut Chan-o-cha will today table the budget bill for fiscal year 2020 before the House of Representatives.
Prayut (left), Thanathorn (right)
The bill was delayed due to the general elections in March and the time it took to form the coalition government. Usually, the annual budget bill is passed by Parliament around August and implemented in October.
The government plans to spend Bt3.2 trillion in the current fiscal, up 6.7 per cent over fiscal 2019 which ended on September 30. The new spending outlays are equivalent to 18 per cent of gross domestic product.
Capital spending has been set at Bt655.8 billion, accounting for 20.5 per cent of total budget, which is also not much compared with the larger share of current spending such as salaries of state officials that are set at Bt2.39 trillion, up 5.3 per cent. The current spending has put high pressure on overall spending, as it accounts for 75.8 per cent of total budget.
The budget is based on the assumption of economic growth at between 3 to 4 per cent, higher than the 2.7 to 3.2 per cent forecast for this year. The government continues to run up a budget deficit as in past years. This fiscal the deficit is set at Bt469 billion, or 2.6 per cent of GDP, as the government wants to stimulate the economy amid a contraction in exports.
Finance Minister Uttama Savanayana on Wednesday expressed his confidence that lawmakers would approve the bill despite the coalition government having only a slim majority in the lower house. The house will spend three days in the first reading of the budget bill.
MPs from the opposition camp over the past few days have raised objections to the government’s "high" spending plans on national security and arms purchases. The government plans to spend Bt428.2 billion on national security, which amounts to 13.4 per cent of total budget. Spending on strategy for creating opportunity and social equality has been set at Bt765.2 billion, or 23.9 per cent of total budget, the largest share. The government is seen as giving priority to reduce the huge income gap in the country. Thailand is among the most unequal societies in the world with a huge gap in the incomes and wealth of the rich and the poor, according to recent reports.
Future Forward Party leader Thanathorn Juangroongruangkit has blamed the way the government allocates funds without answering questions on the huge income gap, looking at the quality of living of people in rural areas, and labourers who are under increasing pressure of being laid off by their employers. He also said the government was spending too little to address natural disasters caused by flooding and drought.
Thanathorn criticised the centralised budgeting system as making government spending less effective. He called for fiscal decentralisation, which would allow people to have a greater say in tax spending. Government investments in mega-projects needed to be reviewed to ensure wider benefits for groups of people rather than being beneficial to a few big capitalists, he said. He also called for the implementation of the universal social welfare system instead of social welfare for targeted groups as implemented by the government.