Much research in the past has studied training methods in general, including for dogs working with police or with search and rescue operations.
Researchers from Portugual’s Unviersity of Porto led the study. The researchers carried out experiments involving two kinds of dog training methods – aversive and reward-based.
Aversive methods depend on the use of some kind of negative action in answer to unwanted behaviors. Examples of this include shouting, pushing or pulling the dog to force it to do something or using special collars that put pressure on the neck.
Reward-based methods involve giving the dog food, praise or attention when the animal completes wanted behaviors.
The study included 92 dogs that were attending training schools in Portugal. Fifty of the dogs received aversive training, while 42 were trained using reward-based methods. The experiments were designed to measure both short-term and long-term effects of the two training methods.
The dogs were video recorded during training sessions so researchers could observe their reactions to the training. Researchers also collected mouth fluid from the dogs before and after the training to test for levels of a stress-causing hormone called cortisol.
Researchers reported that dogs from the aversive training group were observed to have more stress-related behaviors than those in the reward-based group. They also showed increased levels of cortisol. The study suggests these results clearly demonstrate the short-term effects of aversive training methods.
Another part of the experiment was designed to measure the long-term effects of the two different methods. This involved the dogs taking part in an exercise about a month after the training sessions.
The dogs were put in a room containing food bowls. Researchers observed how quickly and excitedly the dogs went to the bowls. The researchers reported that the dogs receiving aversive training were observed to be more “pessimistic” in behaviors in the room than the ones trained with rewards.
The latest study supports earlier research on the effectiveness of reward-based training. Many other studies have suggested that food is the best reward to get dogs to perform the behaviors we want.
One of those studies was led by Erica Feuerbacher, a professor at Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Her study compared a food reward to a reward of petting or praising the animal.
Feuerbacher told The Associated Press the dogs were clear about what reward they liked better. “They’ll work harder and respond faster for food than for social interaction,” she said.
Feuerbacher noted, for example, that research has found that dogs were likely to stay near a person praising them for the same amount of time as if they were being ignored.
Zazie Todd is the writer of a forthcoming book called “Wag: The Science of Making Your Dog Happy.” She told the AP that people clearly should not expect a dog to obey just because they love them.
“If only it was like that,” she said. Todd added: “If your boss stopped paying you, you’d probably stop going to work pretty quickly. You need to motivate your dog too.”
Some dog trainers teach the use of “life rewards,” which could include play or taking the dog for a walk. Todd says these can be useful, especially to help keep behaviors the dog has already learned.
However, for most everyday behaviors most people want to teach, food rewards are just “quicker and easier,” she said.
I’m Bryan Lynn.
Bryan Lynn wrote this story for VOA Learning English, based on the research study and The Associated Press. Ashley Thompson was the editor.
What are your experiences with dog training? Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.
Quiz - Study: Negative Dog Training Methods Can Cause Long-Term Harm
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Words in This Story
negative – adj. not positive or desirable
companion – n. someone you spend a lot of time with
collar – n. a line that attaches around the neck of an animal
stress – n. feelings of worry or nervousness caused by difficult situations or problems
hormone – n. one of several chemicals produced in the body that influence growth and development
pessimistic – adj. tending to believe that the worst will happen
respond – v. say or do something as an answer or reaction to something that has been said or done
boss – n. person who leads a group of employees
motivate – v. stimulate someone’s interest or enthusiasm for doing something
News Words: Elite
6 Minute English
Beating a sedentary lifestyle
EPISODE 180906 / 06 SEP 2018
This week's question:
According to a recent survey, how long does the average person in the UK spend sitting down every day? Is it:
a) between 6 and 7 hours
b) between 7 and 8 hours
c) between 8 and 9 hours
Listen to the programme to find out the answer.
adjective used to describe a lifestyle which involves a lot of sitting and not much exercise
the age to which you are expected to live
someone who avoids doing something they don't like, usually because they are lazy
something meant to be humorous and not taken seriously
adjective that means serious and strict
a board you attach papers to so that you can write on them as you walk around
This is not a word for word transcript
Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Catherine.
And I'm Dan.
Now Dan, would you say you had a sedentary lifestyle at all?
If I only went to work, yes, I would have a pretty sedentary life. I sit on the tube, I sit at my desk or in the studio for most of the day. But because I know that's not good for my health, I do also like to go to the gym a couple of times a week and I'll do some exercise, like a bike ride or playing football at the weekend. So, my job is pretty sedentary, but not my life.
Nice answer, Dan. And our topic today is about how one country in particular has been very successful in dealing with the problem of a sedentary population. But before we find out more, here is today's question. According to a recent survey, how long does the average person in the UK spend sitting down every day? Is it:
a) between 6 and 7 hours,
b) between 7 and 8 hours or
c) between 8 and 9 hours?
So, Dan, what do you think?
Based on my day, it would be between 8 and 9 hours, but I don't know if I am an average person! So I'm interested to learn the answer for myself.
We'll find out the answer later in the programme. Now, 40 years ago Finland was perhaps the unhealthiest country in the Western world. But now, it's one of the healthiest.
Death by heart disease in Finland has fallen by 80% and life expectancy, the age at which the average person lives until, has risen by 10 years.
How has this been achieved? This was investigated on BBC Radio 4's You and Yours programme and one of the ways Finland has improved the health of the nation is by a lot of state involvement. BBC reporter John Laurenson describes in a humorous way how this works. How does he describe someone with many health problems?
If you're an exercise shirker because you're fat or old or asthmatic or chained to your computer or just plain lazy or all of those things rolled into one super-health disaster zone, they will come to you in the form perhaps, of a stern lady with a clipboard and make some firm suggestions. They won't actually drag you off your PlayStation, out of your nursing home or out of the pub but they do get quite close.
How did he describe someone with a lot of health problems, Dan?
Well, he wasn't very complimentary, and we should emphasise that this report is quite tongue-in-cheek, which means that it's meant to be funny and shouldn't be taken seriously but he called the people with many health problems 'super-health disaster zones'.
'Super-health disaster zones'. So what other vocabulary can we pick from what he said?
He talked about being an exercise shirker. A shirker is someone who avoids doing something usually because they are being lazy. It's also a verb, to shirk.
Laurenson says that if you are an exercise shirker or indeed a super-health disaster zone, someone from the authorities will come and visit you. In another tongue-in-cheek description he says that this visitor might be a stern lady with a clipboard.
Stern is an adjective which means very serious and strict, someone without a sense of humour who might be quite angry. And in his description the reporter says that this stern lady will have a clipboard. It's a hard board you can attach papers to so you can write on the paper while you are moving around.
So we have this image of an angry lady arriving at your house to tell you off for your health habits and make you live a healthier life.
But he does point out that they won't actually drag you out of your house to do exercise. However, in the report he goes on to say that there is lot of encouragement, even from school age, to eat well and take regular exercise.
Well, before a stern lady with a clipboard comes and tells us off for not finishing on time, let's get the answer to today's quiz. According to a recent survey, how long does the average person in the UK spend sitting down every day? Is it:
a) between 6 and 7 hours,
b) between 7 and 8 hours or
c) between 8 and 9 hours?
And I said I had no idea.
Well, the answer was c), Dan - between 8 and 9 hours. In fact, it was 8 and a quarter hours. By comparison, in Finland, it's less than 6 hours.
I guess we are a lot more sedentary in Britain.
And sedentary is our first word in our vocabulary review. It's an adjective used to describe a lifestyle which involves a lot of sitting and not much exercise.
And if you are very sedentary, it can lead to a lower life expectancy. Life expectancy - the age to which you are expected to live.
Next we had the word shirker for someone who avoids doing something they don't like, usually because they are lazy. For example, an exercise shirker avoids exercise.
Something that is said tongue-in-cheek is meant to be humorous and not taken seriously.
If you are stern though, you want to be taken seriously. It's an adjective that means serious and strict.
And finally there's clipboard. A board you attach papers to so you write on them as you walk around.
Well, Dan, it's time for us to go and get some exercise. Join us again next time and remember you can find us on Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and of course our website bbclearningenglish.com. See you soon, bye.
Thai economic growth remains fragile as GDP expands just 2.4 per cent
By The Nation
The state think-tank said that on the production side, the agricultural sector increased by 1.5 per cent in contrast to a fall of 1.3 per cent in 2019Q2 while the non-agricultural sector increased by 2.3 per cent, slowing down from a rise of 2.6 per cent in 2019Q2. The deceleration was the result of a 1.5 per cent fall in the manufacturing sector attributed to a drop of export-oriented industries and a slow-down in domestic demand. However, the services sector increased by 3.8 per cent, led by tourism, namely accommodation and food service activities; wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; and transportation and storage, which grew by 6.6 per cent 5.6 per cent and 2.5 per cent, respectively. On the expenditure side, government final consumption expenditure, and gross fixed capital formation increased by 1.8 per cent and 2.8 per cent, compared to a rise of 1.1 per cent and 1.9 per cent in 2019Q2, respectively. Private final consumption expenditure grew by 4.2 per cent, following a rise of 4.6 per cent in 2019Q2. For the external sector, exports and imports of goods decreased by 0.3 per cent and 7.7 per cent, respectively. After seasonal adjustment, the Thai economy in 2019Q3 expanded by 0.1 per cent (QoQ SA).
Private final consumption expenditure grew by 4.2 per cent,in comparison to a rise of 4.6 per cent in 2019Q2, contributed largely to an expansion of durable, semi-durable and non-durable items with a rise of 1.8 per cent, 1.9 per cent and 3.4 per cent, compared to a rise of 5.7 per cent, 3.0 per cent and 4.6 per cent in 2019Q2, respectively. Service items rose 6.4 per cent, accelerating from a rise of 4.7 per cent in 2019Q2.
General government final consumption expenditure increased by 1.8 per cent, accelerated from a 1.1 per cent rise in 2019Q2. That acceleration was attributed to an expansion of compensation of employees and purchases of goods and services with a rise of 1.2 per cent and 6.7 per cent, respectively, whereas social transfer in kind dropped by 3.6 per cent .
Gross fixed capital formation grew by 2.8 per cent, accelerated from a rise of 1.9 per cent in 2019Q2. Expansion came from private investment with a rise of 2.4 per cent, compared to a rise of 2.1 per cent in 2019Q2, due mainly to a 3.1 per cent expansion of machinery items. Public investment accelerated by 3.7 per cent, compared to a rise of 1.4 per cent in 2019Q2, driven by an increase in construction and an improvement in machinery items .
Goods and services balance at current market prices recorded a surplus of Bt435.1 billion , sourced by surpluses in goods and services with the value of Bt244.5 billion and Bt190.6 billion, respectively, added the NESDC.