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link@: “ครุฑ” และ “นาค” ในโขนเรือพระราชพิธี// The Golden Song เวทีเพลงเพราะ

 

 The last month, December, of the year 2019 remains only two weeks before the new year 2020 arrives. Surely,

everyone wishes to have good things come into our life in next year. But however, firstly, you have to do good

in dairy life, too.

I wish you have a good new year through all 2020 very well.


The Big Smile!

FRANCE 24 English – LIVE – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/0fKyrdQ15gs

 

.....................................................................


 

Should I Use 'Make' or 'Do?'

4 hours ago

Ask a Teacher
Ask a Teacher
 
Poor Neighborhoods in Haiti Descend into Anarchy
 

Question: This week we answer a question from Hamza. She writes, “What is the difference between "make" & "do"? How and when should I use them?”

Answer:

Dear Hamza,

“Make” and “do” are similar verbs in English. There are some words that go together with “make” and others that go together with “do.” In other words, there are fixed expressions in English with both of these verbs, and you just have to learn them. But there are general rules you can follow:

  • Use “make” for when you create or produce something.
  • Use “do” for actions you must do, like jobs or work, and for general activities, especially activities you repeat often.

Let’s look at some examples of each verb.

Make

Here are examples of “make” for things we produce. These can be something you can touch, like food and drinks.

I made a cake for your birthday.

Please make some tea before you leave.

Sometimes you cannot see or touch the thing that is created.

Your dog is making too much noise.

We are making progress on our study.

She made plans to go to a movie with her sister.

Do

Let’s look at use of “do” for work or jobs. In another “Ask a Teacher” we talked about the questions, “What do you do? and “What are you doing?” Here are some other examples of using “do” to talk about work at home.

I have to do the planting every fall.

Mom says, “No TV until you do your homework.”

Another way to use “do” is with words like “something,” “anything” and “nothing.”

I did not do anything yesterday.

Are you doing something interesting over the holiday?

The police did nothing to stop the crimes.

Next time you are trying to decide between “make” and “do,” please keep these rules in mind. The more you listen to and read English, the easier it will be to choose between these verbs.

Do you have a question for the VOA English teachers? Please email us with your question. Our email is learningenglish@voanews.com.

I’m Jill Robbins.

Jill Robbins wrote this story for Learning English. Caty Weaver was the editor.

_________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

cake – n. a sweet cooked food, often eaten to celebrate something.

Do you have a question for the teacher? We want to hear from you.

Write to us in the Comments Section or email us at learningenglish@voanews.com

..........................................................

Digital Communication: Emojis and Grammar

December 12, 2019

everyday grammar
everyday grammar
 
Digital Communication: Emojis and Grammar
 

Writer and actor Larry David is behind some of America’s most popular television shows, including Seinfeld and Curb Your Enthusiasm. The shows often discuss the details of everyday life in a funny way.

One time on Curb Your Enthusiasm, David criticized the use of emojis -- symbols often used in text messages and internet exchanges.

She texted me.

She texted you. How adorable.

Yeah... smiley face at the end.

Oh! Smiley face, see I hate that.

I told her about the smiley faces, I can’t stand it! And everybody uses them!

On today’s report, we will discuss grammar and digital communication. We will talk about emojis and the kinds of words they replace. We will also talk about the different ways people around the world use emojis.

Increased use of emojis

Emojis have their roots in Japan. Their name comes from the Japanese words for “picture” and “characters.” They have been common for years in Japanese electronic messages and Web pages. Over time, people in other countries came to adopt them, too. In 2015, Oxford Dictionaries named the “face with tears of joy” emoji as the word of the year.

You might be asking yourself about the link between emojis and grammar. The first key point is this: Sometimes emojis act as a kind of language to communicate important information about emotions or attitudes. These emotions or attitudes might be difficult to express in writing, yet they are part of the idea the writer wants to send. For example, when people speak to each other, they often use their faces and voices to give a lot of information.

The website emojitracker follows all emojis used on Twitter. It lists the most popular emojis on the social media platform. You might not be surprised to learn that some of the most popular emojis have a face.

The most popular emoji is still “the face with tears of joy.” The second most popular emoji, according to emojitracker, is the “grinning face with the smiling eyes.”

The limits of emoji and grammar

Our second key point is this: Emojis fit into English grammar in certain kinds of ways. And experts think there are limits on how complex emoji grammar can become.

A 2019 study by researchers in the Netherlands found that emojis were more likely to replace nouns and adjectives. They were less likely to replace verbs and adverbs.

The researchers noted, “No prepositions or determiners were substituted” by emojis.

Prepositions refer to words such as “in,” “on,” or “at.” These words often show the location of nouns.

Determiners are words such as “the” or “these.” They give information about a noun.

The study pointed out that emoji-only communication was very simple.

One of the reasons is that users cannot change how they present the emojis. Also, vocabulary depends on existing emojis. Expressing feelings or attitudes outside the available choices is difficult.

Emojis and other languages

A 2016 report noted differences in how people around the world use emojis. The researchers found that “users from France are more likely to use emojis.”

The researchers also found that users in France were “more likely to use emojis related to hearts, while users from other countries prefer emojis related to faces.”

While how much these trends may have changed over the past few years is unclear, we bring up this point to get you thinking about how emojis are used in your native language.

How do you feel about emojis? Do you give them a frowning mouth with scrunched eyebrows, like Larry David? Or a grinning face with smiling eyes?

Write to us in the comments section.

That’s Everyday Grammar.

I'm Dorothy Gundy.

And I’m John Russell.

John Russell wrote this story for Learning English. Kelly Jean Kelly was the editor.

________________________________________________

Words in This Story

adorable – adj. very appealing or attractive; very lovable

digital – adj. using or characterized by computer technology

trend – n. a general direction of change : a way of behaving, proceeding, etc., that is developing and becoming more common

character – n. a symbol (such as a letter or number) that is used in writing or printing

attitude – n. the way you think and feel about someone or something

grin – v. to smile widely

scrunched – adj. with tightened the muscles

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

....................................................................

 

6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

Not going out

EPISODE 180726 / 26 JUL 2018

Fewer and fewer people are going out for a walk in the countryside. Our obsession with social media platforms seems to have something to do with it. Neil and Catherine talk about the trend of staying indoors and teach you six items of vocabulary.

This week's question:

In the survey, what percentage of people gave the poor social media photo opportunity as their reason for not wanting to venture out into the countryside? Was it:

a)    around 10%

b)    around 30%

c)    around 50%

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary 

to venture out somewhere
to go out somewhere, but usually when the conditions are bad

millennials
those who became adults in the early 21st century

Generation X
those who became adults in the 1980s and 1990s

phenomenal
amazing, surprising and unbelievable

distractions
activities that prevent us from doing more important things

instagramable
new informal word made with the sufix 'able' and it means 'suitable for posting on the social media platform Instagram'

Transcript

Note: This is not a word for word transcript

Neil
Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I'm Neil. 

Catherine
Hi! And I'm Catherine. 

Neil
Now, Catherine, when was the last time you went for a walk in the country for fun, for exercise or relaxation?           

Catherine
People do that? 

Neil
Well, believe it or not, they do. 

Catherine
Interesting, people are strange. 

Neil
Well, it sounds like you should pay close attention to today's programme because it's all about how fewer and fewer people are venturing out into the country. 

Catherine
Well, I wonder if that word is part of the problem. To venture out somewhere suggests that it's a big challenge, or even a risky activity. 

Neil
I don't think a walk in the country is a particularly dangerous activity, even in bad weather. It's not one of the reasons people gave in a recent survey for why they don't do it. In fact, one of the biggest reasons people gave was that it wouldn't look good on their social media. 

Catherine
Well, of course, why would you go for a walk in the rain in the country if you couldn't get good snaps for your social media account? 

Neil
Interesting you should say that because it's the topic of this week's quiz question. In the survey, what percentage of people gave the poor social media photo opportunity as their reason for not wanting to venture out into the countryside? Was it:
a)    around 10%,
b)    around 30% or
c)    around 50%?
What do you think? 

Catherine
To be honest, I don't think that would be a good excuse at all, so I'm going to say it's just 10%. 

Neil
Listen out for the answer at the end of the programme. Annabel Shackleton is from an organisation called Leaf – Linking Environment and Farming. They want to encourage more people to visit the countryside. She recently appeared on the BBC's Farming Today radio programme. She gave her response to the survey we mentioned which revealed that many of us prefer to stay indoors. What does she say a quarter of people in the survey know and believe? 

Annabel Shackleton
I can’t believe that 4 in 10 millennials think they should spend more time in the countryside and a quarter of them know and believe that it's much better and easier to relax in the countryside but they’re just not going out. It's phenomenal. 

Catherine
She was talking about a group in the survey which she called millennials. This term refers to people who are young adults now, people who were born in the 1980s and 1990s. Are you a millennial, Neil? 

Neil
No, I'm actually Generation X, the age group before millennials. We were born in the 1960s, 70s and early 80s. Shackleton said that a quarter of millennials know and believe that it's better and easier to relax in the country, but they just don’t go. 

Catherine
She thought it was phenomenal. Now this adjective means that something is incredible, unbelievable. It's often used for something that is positive, something that is very impressive or amazing. 

Neil
In this case though she is using it to say how shocked and surprised she is that people know going out in the country is good and a great way to relax but they still don't do it. So what explanation does she have for this phenomenal behaviour. Here's Annabel Shackleton again. 

Annabel Shackleton
There are just so many other distractions and it's just so easy for people to stay indoors. You know and they're using excuses like they haven't got the right clothing, it's not instagramable, would you believe it? And yes, it's a shame. 

Catherine
She said that there are many other distractions. A distraction is something that takes your attention away from doing something. Usually we think of a distraction as something that delays us from doing something more important. 

Neil
These days we have a lot of distractions or things that offer us easy entertainment. So it's very easy to come up with an excuse for not taking the time to go outside. 

Catherine
Another very good excuse of course is the weather. It's not a lot of fun to go out if it's cold and pouring with rain. 

Neil
Well, a very wise person once said that there is no such thing as the wrong weather, just the wrong clothing! 

Catherine
True, Neil, but you have to have the right clothing in the first place and if the weather is terrible you might not be able to get good pictures for your Instagram account. They might not be instagramable. Now you're not going to find that word in the dictionary, but you probably know that the suffix able means 'possible'. So put able on the end of Instagram and you get instagramable

Neil
And that brings us neatly back to our question. What percentage of people in the survey said that they wouldn't go out in the country because they wouldn't get good pictures for social media? Was it around 10%, 30% or 50%. What did you say, Catherine? 

Catherine
I said 10. 

Neil
And the answer was about 30%! 

Catherine
What is the world coming to? 

Neil
I don’t know what the world is coming to, but we are coming to the end of the programme, so time to review today's vocabulary. 

Catherine
We started off with to venture out somewhere, which simply means to go out somewhere, but usually when the conditions are bad, for example – it was pouring with rain but I still decided to venture out to the shops. 

Neil
We heard about millennials and Generation X. Different age groups, millennials are those who became adults in the early 21st century, and Generation X are from the previous generation, who became adults in the 1980s and 1990s. 

Catherine
Something phenomenal is amazing, surprising and unbelievable. 

Neil
And then we had distractions for activities that prevent us from doing more important things. 

Catherine
And one of the biggest distractions is social media. Put the suffix able onto the end of the name of a social media platform and you create a word that describes something that is suitable for posting, so instagramable. 

Neil
bbclearningenglish is certainly instagramable, facebookable, tweetable and youtubeable. You can find us on all those platforms as well as on our website. So do check us out there before joining us again for more 6 Minute English. Goodbye. 

Catherine
Goodbye!

..................................................

Six sites of Thai culture you can explore along Chao Phraya River

Dec 14. 2019

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By The Nation

1,087 Viewed

The royal barge procession on Thursday showcased the majesty and grace of Thai culture, kindling public interest in exploring more of the historic attractions.  There are many historical sites and tourist attractions along the Chao Phraya River which came into the limelight such as Thammasat University, Wat Rachathiwat Pier, Santichai Prakan Park, Maharaj Road, Nakarapirom Park, etc. For those interested in history, here are six spots they can check out:

Better-known among Thais as Wat Mahathat or Wat Saluk, this is one of the 10 main temples in Bangkok. Built in the Ayutthaya leriod and renovated during the reign of King Rama I, Wat Mahathat is at the foundation of the history of Buddhism in Thailand, as the Buddhist Tripitaka was convoked here in 1788. Among the highlight features are the Vihara Pho Lanka, or Vihara Noi, where King Rama IV resided when he was a monk, and Akarn Watthu, or Red Building, which once housed Bangkok's first library. In the reign of King Rama I, he intended the temple area to be an important religious site to divide the space between the royal palace and the deputy king's palace. In olden days, Thai-Chinese people lived around the temple area and the community expanded to the Sanam Luang area, becoming a large Chinese community. Later, when the Grand Palace was built, the Chinese migrated to the south of the river to what is now known as Yaowarat or China Town.

 

Hall of Sculpture

A distinctive tourist attraction when passing the old deputy king's palace fence, the Hall of the Sculpture is located near the Fine Arts Department. It was originally used as a sculpture workshop. However, since it was located in a crowded area, the department received complaints about pollution, especially when melting metal and gold. The new workshop is now in Nakhon Pathom province while the old one became the sculpture museum or Hall of Sculpture. It shows the process of sculpting and the works of many important artists to inspire the younger generation.

 

Wat Arun Ratchawararam Ratchawaramahawihan 

From the Grand Palace when you cross the Chao Phraya River for a Bt4 fee, you reach another temple -- Wat Arun Ratchawararam Ratchawaramahawihan -- also known as the Temple of Dawn. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions, and is a part of most foreign travellers' itinerary. The highlight of the temple is the central prang, built in the complicated Ayutthaya style.

Wat Arun has been associated with the monarch as the Temple of King Rama II.

Wat Kalayanamitr Varamahavihara 

Access the shortcut around Klong Bangkok Yai bridge to the Kudeejeen community where the millionaire owner of the area was once friends with King Rama III. Wat Kalayanami [Temple of True Friendship] is located near the west bank of the Chao Phraya River and has been built as a monument to their friendship. The most distinctive feature is the large chapel with the Buddha Tri Rattanayok statue or ‘Sam Poo Kong’ as it is called by Chinese-Thais around the area. The temple combines Thai and Chinese art.

Kian Un Keng Shrine

Walking along the river from the Temple of Friendship, the ancient Chinese Kian Un Keng Shrine in the Kudeejeen area has welcomed visitors for a 100 years. The shrine interior contains a rare image of the Chinese goddess Guanyin and is decorated with murals and paintings of scenes from the classical Chinese novel, "Romance of Three Kingdoms". 

Santa Cruz Church

Beaides Buddhist attractions, visitors can also admire the Santa Cruz Church [Holy Cross church]. The Roman Catholic Santa Cruz Church was built in 1834 as a place of worship for the local community of Portuguese merchants and missionaries who had settled in the Kudeejeen area. The building has a magnificent semi-circle dome tower and a graceful arch with the red roof, which is lit in blue light and stands out in the dark.

 ....................................................................

Winter revives Bangkok's air pollution problem

Dec 14. 2019

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By THE NATION

228 Viewed

The stagnant winter air has resulted in the re-emergence of PM2.5 dust particles in Bangkok, the city's administration reported.

Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) permanent secretary Silapasuay Raweesaengsoon said on Saturday (December 14) that the BMA’s Office of Environment is monitoring the air pollution situation.

“The BMA has ordered district offices that have PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter) exceeding the standard of 50 micrograms per cubic metre to increase the frequency of cleaning roads and sidewalks,” she said. “Furthermore, we have dispatched water trucks to spray mist during traffic rush hours to suppress dust particles.”

The permanent secretary added that the city also has ordered its agencies to check the condition of service vehicles regularly to make sure they do not emit black smoke, which is the main cause of air pollution in Bangkok.

“We have also urged our garbage pickup staff to finish their rounds on main and secondary roads before 4am every day to reduce traffic congestion in rush hours, and ordered them to turn off their engine every time they make a stop,” she added.

The BMA’s Office of Environment reported that Bangkok's PM2.5 level on Saturday (December 14) averaged 53 micrograms per cubic metre, which is slightly above safety standards.

Eleven districts had PM2.5 levels that were expected to rise to a level where they could affect people's health. They are: Pathumwan, Bang Kho Laem, Bang Kapi, Klongsan, Bankok Noi, Phasi Jaroen, Bang Khen, Bang Phlat, Khlong Toei, Bang Sue, and Lak Si.

 

 .....................................................................

FINISHED

December 14, 2019

 



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