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FRANCE 24 English – LIVE – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/NbKzACYrWZQ

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Oldest Material Discovered on Earth: 7 Billion Year Old Stardust

3 hours ago

Research led by scientists at The Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois, has indicated that the oldest solid material on Earth has been identified. The material is stardust believed to have formed about 7 billion years ago. (Screen capture image courtesy of T
Research led by scientists at The Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois, has indicated that the oldest solid material on Earth has been identified. The material is stardust believed to have formed about 7 billion years ago. (Screen capture image courtesy of T

Scientists say they have identified the oldest solid material on Earth – stardust believed to have formed about 7 billion years ago. It was found in pieces of meteorite that fell out of the sky in Australia 50 years ago.

Stardust is matter that forms as small particles in space when stars die. These particles can be used later to form new planetary bodies, including stars, planets and moons.

The meteorite pieces came down in September 1969 in the town of Murchison, in Australia’s Victoria state. Scientists with the Field Museum of Natural History in the American city of Chicago have long held the largest collection of these pieces.

But until now, the age of the oldest stardust samples had not been confirmed.

This image taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope shows thick space dust produced by stars around the preplanetary Egg Nebula. (Image credit: NASA, W. Sparks - STScI - and R. Sahai - JPL)
This image taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope shows thick space dust produced by stars around the preplanetary Egg Nebula. (Image credit: NASA, W. Sparks - STScI - and R. Sahai - JPL)

Researchers at the museum reported their identification last week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“This is one of the most exciting studies I’ve worked on,” said Philipp Heck, a curator at The Field Museum who led the research. “These are the oldest solid materials ever found, and they tell us about how stars formed in our galaxy,” he added.

The scientists said the microscopic particles were made of silicon carbide, the first mineral formed when a star cools. All of the samples predate the formation of our own solar system, they noted.

The researchers said the stardust particles “became trapped in meteorites, where they remained unchanged for billions of years.” This makes the samples “time capsules” of events that happened before the solar system.

 

The identification process first involved crushing the samples down into a fine dust. The pieces were then mixed with acid, which left only the pre-solar particles.

The researchers then examined samples for information that would help them identify what kinds of stars they came from and how old they were.

In space, dust interacts with cosmic rays -- high-energy particles that move through space at nearly the speed of light.

Philipp Heck explained that some of these interactions result in the formation of new elements. The longer the interactions last, the more elements are formed. Age can then be estimated by measuring how many of the new cosmic ray-produced elements were present in pre-solar samples, Heck said.

This artist’s impression shows what the very distant young galaxy A2744_YD4 might look like. Observations using ALMA have shown that this galaxy, seen when the Universe was just 4 percent of its current age, is rich in dust. Such dust was produced by an e
This artist’s impression shows what the very distant young galaxy A2744_YD4 might look like. Observations using ALMA have shown that this galaxy, seen when the Universe was just 4 percent of its current age, is rich in dust. Such dust was produced by an e

Based on examinations of this data, the researchers learned that some of the pre-solar particles were the oldest ever discovered. The team identified the age of 40 grains, most of which were estimated to be between 4.6 billion and 4.9 billion years old.

These ages relate to the time when the first stars began to break up. Since that kind of star lived for up to 2.5 billion years, the stardust can be as old as up to seven billion years.

The latest dating process confirms a scientific theory that predicted “a baby boom of stars” happened before the formation of our sun.

“We have more young grains than we expected,” Heck said. He added: "We basically came to the conclusion that there must have been a time in our galaxy when more stars formed than normal, and at the end of their lives they become dust producing."

I’m Bryan Lynn.

Bryan Lynn wrote this story for VOA Learning English, based on reports from Reuters, Agence France-Presse, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and The Field Museum of Natural History. Ashley Thompson was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.

Quiz - Oldest Material Discovered on Earth: 7 Billion Year Old Stardust

Quiz - Oldest Material Discovered on Earth: 7 Billion Year Old Stardust

Start the Quiz to find out

 

Words in This Story

meteorite – n. a piece of rock from outer space

sample – n. a small amount of something that represents what it is like

curator – n. a person who is in charge of a museum

time capsule – n. a container filled with objects considered to be typical of a period in history and buried, so that it can be dug up and studied much later

interact – v. to act upon one another

baby boom – n. a large increase in the number of babies born in a particular place during a particular time

grain – n. a very small piece of a hard substance

conclusion – n. a decision made after a lot of consideration

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FBI: Stealing of Ideas for New Technology Increases

4 hours ago

The new U.S.-China trade agreement includes provisions that are aimed at curbing forced technology transfers, in which companies hand over technical know-how to foreign partners.

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In 2008, United States government officials approved a patent for an electronic device that looks a lot like today’s Apple iPhone. The patent gave special legal rights to a group of inventors, including Apple founder Steve Jobs. It barred other people and businesses from making, using or selling the device.

In a few years, other companies were making similar mobile phones. Did they steal the idea? It was legal for those companies to make a similar product, as long as it was not exactly the same. But they had to solve for themselves how to make it.

New ideas for technology are a kind of intellectual property – the product of a person’s mind. Inventors are worried more these days about new ways that others can learn about how their inventions work.

One place where new products are demonstrated is at conferences where people from around the world are gathered, the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) notes.

CES 2020

Every January, CES, once called the Consumer Electronics Show, is held in Las Vegas, Nevada. More than 175,000 people attended the event this year.

Eric Lynn lifts a 50 pound suitcase with the help of a powered arm similar to the Sarcos Robotics Guardian XO at the Delta Airlines booth during the CES tech show, Wednesday, Jan. 8, 2020, in Las Vegas.
Eric Lynn lifts a 50 pound suitcase with the help of a powered arm similar to the Sarcos Robotics Guardian XO at the Delta Airlines booth during the CES tech show, Wednesday, Jan. 8, 2020, in Las Vegas.

David Eagleman is a neuroscientist who teaches at Stanford University in California. He co-founded a company that created a wristband to help those who have trouble hearing. The wristband sends signals through their skin.

Many years of research led to production of the device, so Eagleman wanted to protect it well globally.

“We have all the underlying technology patented, so we're not terribly worried about patent theft. … This is a group of 170,000 smart people, and so it's something that we just have to watch out for..."

The FBI’s Aaron Rouse notes:

“It does happen from time to time where a piece of product may go missing or somebody has noticed when they get back to their factory that there has been a piece of software that's been installed onto one of their systems.”

Rouse is special agent in charge of the FBI’s Las Vegas division.

FBI catches lawbreakers

The FBI and federal government lawyers say they have a long list of cases of stolen trade secrets from just the past year. They include a North Carolina man who stole trade secrets from aircraft companies.

Another case involves a software engineer at a U.S. company that manufactures railroad engines. The engineer is accused of stealing proprietary information from his company and taking it to China.

Another case involved a Chinese national in California who is now in prison for stealing secrets about medical devices and taking them to China.

There are many different groups that want stolen technology.

(They) "could be a criminal organization, could be a foreign intelligence service, could be a competitor,” Aaron Rouse said.

More than 4,000 companies demonstrated products and services at CES 2020. People from more than 160 countries attended the event.

Rouse noted that it is important to watch everyone who touches the technology carefully.

Tara Scranton demonstrates the Sarcos Robotics Guardian XO at the Delta Airlines booth during the CES tech show, Wednesday, Jan. 8, 2020, in Las Vegas.
Tara Scranton demonstrates the Sarcos Robotics Guardian XO at the Delta Airlines booth during the CES tech show, Wednesday, Jan. 8, 2020, in Las Vegas.

“During the time of the convention, who's handling your equipment? Who is handling your product. And, do they have access or the capability of installing malware onto that product at that time?"

Technology continues be reach more into everyday activities, and a lot of information is shared over the internet. The FBI warns that the growing rate of intellectual property theft can cost companies billions of dollars.

I’m Jill Robbins.

Elizabeth Lee reported on this story for VOA News. Jill Robbins adapted it for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

What do you think of the theft of new ideas for technology? We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

Words in This Story

theft – n. the act of stealing something

mobile – adj. able to be moved; changeable in purpose

software – n. programs for a computer

install – v. to make (a machine, a service or software programs) ready to be used in a certain place

malware – n. a computer program that is designed to damage or break into a computer

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6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

Could you give up booze for a month?

EPISODE 200116 / 10 JAN 2020

Introduction

Do you enjoy having a glass of wine, gin or a beer with friends? Would you be able to give it up for a whole month? That's what Dry January is all about - a campaign to encourage people to resist the temptation of booze and enjoy some health benefits. Sam and Rob discuss the challenge of cutting down on alcohol and teach you related vocabulary.

This week's question

According to historians, which people were thought to be the first group to make New Year's resolutions? Was it the…

a)     Romans

b)     Native Americans 

c)      Babylonians

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary

resolution
a promise to yourself to stop or start doing something 

peer pressure
influence a group of similar people have on you to behave like them 

ingrained
an attitude or idea that's been done in a certain way for a long time and is difficult to change 

merchandise
goods we buy and sell 

hangover
sick, tired and sometimes anxious feeling you get after drinking too much alcohol 

permeating
spreading through something and influencing every part of it

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word-for-word transcript     

Sam
Hello. This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. I'm Sam… 

Rob
And I'm Rob. 

Sam
So we're well into 2020 now – how are your New Year's resolutions going, Rob? 

Rob
Ah resolutions – you mean promises people make to themselves to stop or start doing something – I promised to start running, and to stop eating biscuits and to give up alcohol for a month. But I failed on all of them! 

Sam
Oh dear... 

Rob
Yes, I lasted a few days and then I started to crumble. 

Sam
Yeah. Well, you're not alone. Many people try to kick bad habits and get healthy when a new year begins. Their intentions – their plans to do something – are good. 

Rob
Yes, giving up drinking is particularly good to do, if only for the health benefits. 

Sam
Well, we'll be talking more about that as soon as I've set up today's question. According to historians, which people were thought to be the first group to make New Year's resolutions? Was it the…
a) Romans
b) Native Americans
c) Babylonians 

Rob
I haven't got a clue, so I'm going to guess a) the Romans. 

Sam
OK, Rob, I'll let you know if that was a good guess at the end of the programme. Now let's talk more about giving things up for New Year and, specifically, giving up alcohol. 

Rob
It's a time often called 'Dry January' – dry refers to not drinking alcohol, it's not about the weather! And the beginning of the year seems like a good time to start doing something to improve your health. 

Sam
But it's easy to give in to temptation – isn't it, Rob? 

Rob
Oh yes.  And it's tough to give up drinking in the first place, as Millie Gooch, founder of The Sober Girl Society knows. She spoke to BBC Radio 4's You and Yours programme and explained why it was hard to quit in the first place… 

Millie Gooch, founder of The Sober Girl Society
I think it's the peer pressure and, you know, it's so expected of us, it's so ingrained in us. Alcohol is everywhere and it's not just alcohol itself, it's alcohol merchandise, so, you know, you've got Christmas jumpers that have been say 'Prosecco-ho-ho-ho' and you can't buy a birthday card without saying 'let the fun be-gin'. It's just absolutely everywhere, it's so hard to avoid. 

Sam
So that's Millie, who's right when she says that, in the UK at least, we sometimes drink because we give in to peer pressure. That's the influence a group of similar people have on you to behave like them. 

Rob
We want to be part of the group so we copy what they do – and we are expected to do so because, as Millie said, drinking alcohol is ingrained in us – well in some cultures anyway. 

Sam
And when an attitude is ingrained it means it's been that way for a long time - it's difficult to change.  And although it may be harmful, we see jokes about drinking through things like merchandise – a word for goods we buy and sell. 

Rob
And Millie goes on to say we can buy jumpers that joke about the Italian sparkling wine called Prosecco – which say 'Prosecco-ho-ho-ho!' And birthday cards have the message 'let the fun be-gin' – a play on the word 'begin'. 

Sam
With all this social pressure, it's hard not to give in – and that's even worse when you're trying to fulfil your resolution not to drink. 

Rob
For Millie, enough was enough when drinking started to have a negative effect and she had to do something about it.  Let's hear from her again… 

Millie Gooch, founder of The Sober Girl Society
I started realising that alcohol was really affecting my mental health, so I was getting that really bad hangover anxiety – that like, hangover fear and dread – and I kind of noticed that was permeating everyday life. I was a binge drinker rather than like an everyday drinker… So I just decided that it wasn't suiting my life any more and I wanted to give it up. 

Rob
So Millie there described the negative effects of a hangover – that's the sick and tired feeling you get after drinking too much alcohol.  She also said she felt anxiety. And this feeling was permeating her everyday life.  When something permeates it spreads through something and influences every part of it.

Sam
So, drinking was affecting her everyday life, and it didn't help that she was a binge drinker. When you binge you do something occasionally but to extreme. 

Rob
Well, Millie managed to quit drinking and hasn't touched a drop since. There are many benefits to remaining sober – that means not being drunk. And one of them is hearing the answer to today's question! 

Sam
Earlier I asked you: According to historians, which people were thought to be the first group to make New Year's resolutions? Was it the…
a) Romans
b) Native Americans
c) Babylonians 
And Rob, what did you say? 

Rob
I had a wild guess and said it was the Romans. 

Sam
Sorry, Rob, you are wrong. Many historians think it was the Babylonians who made the first ever New Year's resolutions, about 4,000 years ago.  According to the history.com website, at New Year – which they celebrated in mid-March - Babylonians made promises to the gods to pay their debts and return any objects they had borrowed. 

Rob
I wonder if they managed to keep their resolutions for longer than I did… Anyway, let's keep one of our regular promises - to recap the vocabulary we've discussed today. Starting with resolution

Sam
…which in the context of a New Year's resolution, is a promise to yourself to stop or start doing something. 

Rob
Peer pressure is the influence a group of similar people have on you to behave like them. 

Sam
Ingrained describes an attitude or idea that has been done in a certain way for a long time and is difficult to change. And merchandise is a word for goods we buy and sell. 

Rob

We also mentioned a hangover – that's the sick, tired and sometimes anxious feeling you get after drinking too much alcohol. And permeating describes spreading through something and influencing every part of it. Like the vocabulary in this programme, Sam! 

Sam
Thanks, Rob - and that's all for now. 

Rob
Bye bye!

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Move to link central fruit markets with China to boost exports

Jan 20. 2020

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By THE NATION

The Department of Internal Trade (DIT) plans to link Thailand’s central fruit markets with those of China to expand the trading channel for Thai fruits, Whichai Phochanakij, the department’s director-general, said recently.

“The central markets the DIT aims to link are those being promoted by the DIT,” he said. “This operation will be managed in advance in order to serve fruits that will come into the Thai market in the future.”

Previously, the DIT had linked the “Emerald” fruit market in Chumphon province with the Commercial Association for Sustainability of Agriculture and China Agriculture Wholesale Market. This move helped increase Thai fruit exports to China.

In addition, the DIT plans to set up an Agricultural Grading Quality Centre, which can provide numerous services related to agricultural products, such as product quality sorting, residue and disease checking, and packaging.

Furthermore, the DIT is taking measures to expedite the sale of lychees, which will enter the market in February. The DIT is collaborating with airlines to allow their passengers to load upto 20kg of lychees free of charge.

The DIT also will provide fruit boxes to the plane passengers. This measure was successful last year in boosting sales of southern fruits like mangosteen, rambutan and langsat. “Four airlines joined hands with us in this promotion last year. We expect more airlines to join this year,” the director-general added.

Jan 20. 2020
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By THE NATION

Thailand Meteorological Department forecast on Monday (January 20) that the moderate high-pressure system from China covering the upper Northeast of Thailand and the South China Sea and the westerly trough at a high altitude would bring cold air from the Himalayas to the North of Thailand.

The department also mentioned the easterly and southeasterly winds prevail over the Central, the East, the South and the lower Gulf of Thailand, leading to thundershowers in the lower South.

In the central region, including Bangkok and its vicinity, light winds blowing around the area will increase the accumulation of dust.

The weather forecast for the next 24 hours is as follows:

Northern region: Cool to cold with fog in the morning, temperature lows of 14-21°C and highs of 30-36°C. Temperature likely to drop to 2-11°C on hilltops.

Northeastern region: Cool weather with fog in the morning, temperature lows of 16-21°C and highs of 30-33°C. Temperature likely to drop to 10-14°C on hilltops.

Central region: Cold with fog in the morning; temperature lows of 22-23°C, highs 33-36°C.

Eastern region: Partly cloudy with fog in the morning; lows of 21-25°C, highs 32-34°C; waves lower than one metre.

Southern region (east coast): Partly cloudy with thundershowers in 20 per cent of the area; lows of 23-27°C, highs 31-34°C; waves a metre high.

Southern region (west coast): Partly cloudy with thundershowers in 10 per cent of the area; lows 22-26°C, highs 34-35°C; waves a metre high.

Bangkok and surrounding areas: Partly cloudy with fog in the morning; lows of 25-26°C, highs 32-36°C.

 

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20 ,dik8, 2563 

 


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5.การนำเรื่อง ภาพ หรือคลิปวิดีโอ ที่มิใช่ของตนเองมาลงในบล็อก ควรอ้างอิงแหล่งที่มา และ หลีกเลี่ยงการเผยแพร่สิ่งที่ละเมิดลิขสิทธิ์ ไม่ว่าจะเป็นรูปแบบหรือวิธีการใดก็ตาม 6. เนื้อหาและความคิดเห็นในบล็อก ไม่เกี่ยวข้องกับทีมงานผู้ดำเนินการจัดทำเว็บไซต์ โดยถือเป็นความรับผิดชอบทางกฎหมายเป็นการส่วนตัวของสมาชิก
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OKnation ขอสงวนสิทธิ์ในการปิดบล็อก ลบเนื้อหาและความคิดเห็น ที่ขัดต่อความดังกล่าวข้างต้น โดยไม่ต้องชี้แจงเหตุผลใดๆ ต่อเจ้าของบล็อกและเจ้าของความคิดเห็นนั้นๆ
   

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