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link@: learning english with voa news : Thursday, January 23, 2020

 

 

Best Wishes to A 2020 Chinese New Year for all of you.

Today on Everyday Grammar, we will explore the kind of language ‘The Dude’ uses casual grammar. We also will

explain the meaning of the term dude. It has a much richer history and meaning than you might expect.

What is the above information? What is 'dude'? We've to follow up next.

Thanks to Google Translate and G Grammarly a lot as ever.

 

 

Watch ABC News live https://youtu.be/sx4e405BJxs

.........................................................

This Is Casual Grammar, Dude

3 hours ago

everyday grammar
everyday grammar
 
This Is Casual Grammar, Dude
 


The Big Lebowski, a 1998 crime comedy, is an American ‘cult classic.’ In other words, the film has a group of very loyal fans.

The Big Lebowski tells the story of Jeffrey Lebowski. Lebowski can best be described as a slacker. He shows little interest in - and generally avoids - doing work. He goes by the name, “The Dude.”

In the film, actor Sam Elliott describes Jeffrey Lebowski.

“This Lebowski, he called himself 'The Dude.' Now, 'Dude' - that's a name no one would self-apply where I come from. But, then there was a lot about the 'Dude' that didn't make a whole lot of sense to me.”

 

Today on Everyday Grammar, we will explore the kind of language ‘The Dude’ uses casual grammar. We also will explain the meaning of the term dude. It has a much richer history and meaning than you might expect.

Let us begin with some history and definitions.

Unclear origins and definitions

If you look at a dictionary, you will see that the word dude, a noun, is a term for a man or a boy.

But dude did not start out with that definition.

The online search engine Google Ngrams shows the term was used throughout the 1800s. It became more popular toward the end of the 19th century.

Google Ngrams
Google Ngrams

 

The Online Etymology Dictionary says that dude suggested a “fastidious man” -- someone who cares very much about being neat and clean. It adds that research suggests the word is a shortening of “Yankee Doodle,” a well-known American song.

Richard Hill wrote about dude in American Speech, the journal of the American Dialect Society. He notes that in the 1930s and 1940s, some Mexican-American and African-American men began using the term when speaking with other men. It was sort of an “in-group” term.

Hill went on to note that dude became more common in American English, possibly through the influence of African-Americans in music and popular culture.

Dude eventually became a common word in very casual situations. The term can suggest lazy or effortless behavior. This is why ‘The Dude’ in The Big Lebowski goes by his name – he loves the casual, easy-going life.

But for a term that could show laziness or effortlessness, dude works surprisingly hard to serve many purposes in everyday speech.

Discourse marker and way to show reported speech

Dude has a few surprising uses. Speakers use it as a discourse marker -- a word that helps organize a conversation.

Dude can help organize a conversation by showing when a transition, or change, is coming.

Imagine a young man has just finished telling a story. His friend might say,

“Dude, that reminds of a time when I had a similar experience…”

In this example, the speaker uses dude to show a transition from one story to the next.

A speaker might also report speech by using dude. Imagine the following statement:

“Tommy was like, dude, you shouldn’t do that, it’s a bad idea!”

In this case, the words “dude, you shouldn’t do that, it’s a bad idea!” are reported speech. They show that the speaker is explaining what Tommy said. However, these words are not exactly what was said. Instead, the speaker is reporting on the substance, or basic idea, of what Tommy said.

How do women use dude?

In a study on the word dude, Scott F. Kiesling noted that women often use the term in different ways than men do.

Women sometimes use dude to show concern for or express sympathy with another person. The example Kiesling gives is about a young woman telling a story about a man hitting on her, making dreamy, romantic statements.

Her female friend exclaims,

“Dude!”

In this case, the woman uses dude to show support for her friend and anger toward the man. You can hear this in the sound of her voice.

Closing thoughts

Dude has other uses that we are not able to explore in our report today. But you now have the idea that dude is far more than just a noun meaning “a man or a boy.”

However, a word of warning: be careful when using dude. One probably should not say it when speaking with a supervisor , a co-worker or a teacher.

Understanding the term dude can be useful. When you are watching American movies, or even speaking with young people, you will hear this term a lot. And when you do, you will understand that this seemingly simple term can communicate a lot of information.

We end this report with two questions for you. What other kinds of words show reported speech in casual, informal speaking? What are other common discourse markers in casual, informal speaking? Here’s an idea: we have stories on these and other subjects on our website, learningenglish.voanews.com.

And that’s Everyday Grammar.

I’m John Russell.

And I’m Jill Robbins.

 

John Russell wrote this story for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

Words in This Story

comedy – n. a show meant to make people laugh

fan – n. someone who has a strong interest in a person or thing

self-apply – v. to put on one's self

grammar – n. the study of words and their uses and relationships in a sentence

casual – adj. involving something done without much thought

dictionary – n. a book or guide that lists and defines the words of a language

lazy – adj. not liking to work hard or to be active; in an unconcerned or easy going way

conversation – n. a spoken exchange involving two people or a small group of people; the act of talking in an informal way

remind – v. to cause a person to remember someone or something

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section

 ........................................

January 23, 2020

January 23, 2020
A look at the best news photos from around the world.

Britain's Prince Charles, second right, speaks with Holocaust survivor Marta Wise, second left, and George Shefi, left, whose mother died at Auschwitz, during an event at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
1Britain's Prince Charles, second right, speaks with Holocaust survivor Marta Wise, second left, and George Shefi, left, whose mother died at Auschwitz, during an event at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
A man rides his bike next to a car in an alley leading to the Reichenau island near Konstanz, southern Germany.
2A man rides his bike next to a car in an alley leading to the Reichenau island near Konstanz, southern Germany.
School students perform during a full dress rehearsal for the upcoming Indian Republic Day parade, in Chennai, India.
3School students perform during a full dress rehearsal for the upcoming Indian Republic Day parade, in Chennai, India.
Central American migrants walk carrying a handmade U.S. flag and signs, after crossing the Suchiate River from Guatemala in Ciudad Hidalgo, Mexico.
4Central American migrants walk carrying a handmade U.S. flag and signs, after crossing the Suchiate River from Guatemala in Ciudad Hidalgo, Mexico.
A piece of burned wood seen in Kangaroo Valley, Australia.
5A piece of burned wood seen in Kangaroo Valley, Australia.
Members of a health team get ready to carry out health measures and procedures against a new coronavirus, after people land at Rome's Fiumicino airport on a flight from Wuhan, China.
6Members of a health team get ready to carry out health measures and procedures against a new coronavirus, after people land at Rome's Fiumicino airport on a flight from Wuhan, China.
French Interior Minister Christophe Castaner visits the burial places of the victims of the Ozar Hatorah school attack in Toulouse, at the Israeli cemetery of Givat Shaul in Jerusalem.
7French Interior Minister Christophe Castaner visits the burial places of the victims of the Ozar Hatorah school attack in Toulouse, at the Israeli cemetery of Givat Shaul in Jerusalem.
Dogs look out of their containers before the start of the traditional Sedivackuv Long dog sled race, near the village of Destne v Orlickych Horach, Czech Republic.
8Dogs look out of their containers before the start of the traditional Sedivackuv Long dog sled race, near the village of Destne v Orlickych Horach, Czech Republic.
A woman sits on a broken bed with her family dog on the floor of a burned-out house as people search for their belongings after a fire broke out in a slum in Karachi, Pakistan, January 22, 2020.
9A woman sits on a broken bed with her family dog on the floor of a burned-out house as people search for their belongings after a fire broke out in a slum in Karachi, Pakistan, January 22, 2020.
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Accessibility links

6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

Women in politics

EPISODE 200123 / 23 JAN 2020

 

Introduction

Thousands of women have signed up with 50:50 Parliament to register their interest in standing as an MP (Member of Parliament) in the UK. What's inspiring them to get involved? Sam and Georgina discuss the engagement of women in politics and teach you related vocabulary.

This week's question

Which country has the highest percentage of women in its parliament? Is it:

a) Rwanda

b) Sweden 

c) New Zealand

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary

to stand
to be a candidate in an election 

to see yourself (doing something)
to imagine that it is possible for you to do something 

the prospect of
the possibility of 

jargon
vocabulary and expressions related to a particular job 

a disadvantaged background
growing up in a family situation without much money 

to tailor (what you say)
to change (how you speak) to make it suitable for a particular group

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word-for-word transcript     

Sam
Hello. This is 6 Minute English, I'm Sam. 

Georgina
And I'm Georgina. 

Sam
How do you do feel about politics, Georgina? 

Georgina
Well, there’s a lot around at the moment! 

Sam
Yes, indeed! 

Georgina
One thing I would like to see in politics, particularly British politics, is more women in parliament. About 34% of our MPs are women, which is the highest it’s ever been, but it’s still not close to 50%. 

Sam
In order to be elected though, you first have to stand, don’t you? 

Georgina
Yes, we use the verb stand when you are a candidate someone can vote for. 

Sam
Women in politics is our topic today. Before we get into it, today’s question. Which country has the highest percentage of women in its parliament? Is it:
a) Rwanda
b) Sweden
c) New Zealand
What do you think, Georgina?

Georgina
I’m not sure. I know New Zealand was one of the first countries to allow women to vote and they currently have a female prime minister – but I think it’s actually an African country. So I’m going to say Rwanda. 

Sam
OK. We’ll see if you’re correct at the end of the programme. There are a number of projects in the UK at the moment trying to get more women interested in standing for parliament. One of these is the campaign ‘sign-up-to-stand’ from an organisation called 50:50 Parliament. Lucrece Grehoua is someone who has taken up that challenge and is hoping to stand in upcoming elections. She was a guest on the BBC Radio programme Woman’s Hour. She wasn’t always interested in politics, though. How does she describe it? 

Lucrece Grehoua
I didn’t really see myself in the Houses of Parliament. When we see it on TV it looks extremely boring, politics looks boring, especially as a young person and so when I saw that 50:50 Parliament were including women and including young women, including a diverse range of young women, I thought ‘wow, this is really for me and it can be for me’. So I decided to #signuptostand. Ever since I’ve just been excited at the prospect of me standing for parliament.

Sam
What was her original feeling about politics? 

Georgina
Boring! She thought it was boring, particularly as a young person. In fact she couldn’t see herself as a politician. She couldn’t imagine herself doing it. 

Sam
She says that she is now excited at the prospect of standing. What does she mean by that? 

Georgina
The prospect of something is the possibility of something. So before, she thought it was boring, now she’s excited at the possibility that she could be a member of parliament. 

Sam
So, what was it that made her change her mind and think that politics wasn’t so boring after all? Here’s Lucrece Grehoua again. 

Lucrece Grehoua 
I think everybody has a politician within them because we all get anger about something but unfortunately when we see it, it’s all jargon, it’s not very… words that we can understand. Even just as a working class person who hasn’t, you know, been to a private school and who’s come from a disadvantaged background and so I realised politics is for absolutely everybody, it’s just the way that you speak about it has to be tailored to everyone. 

Sam
One of the things she didn’t like about politics was the jargon. 

Georgina
Well, no one likes jargon, do they? Jargon is the very specific language and vocabulary relating to a particular profession. Inside the profession people know what it means, but from outside it can seem very complicated and confusing. 

Sam 
Lucrece said she came from a disadvantaged background. This means that when she was growing up her family didn’t have very much money and that made life and study very difficult. 

Georgina
But even though, or maybe because, she came from a disadvantaged background she has become interested in politics and thinks that it can be something for everyone, but rather than use jargon you have to tailor the way you speak for everyone. To tailor something is to make it fit – in the same way that a tailor makes clothes fit, you can tailor your language to make it easy for everyone to understand. And one way to do that is to cut out the jargon

Sam
That’s just about all we have time for today. But before we review the vocabulary, it’s time to get the answer to today’s quiz question. Which country has the highest percentage of women in its parliament? Is it:
a) Rwanda
b) Sweden
c) New Zealand
Georgina, what did you say? 

Georgina
I made an educated guess of Rwanda. 

Sam
An educated guess and a correct guess. Well done. And well done to everyone else who got that right too! According to 2019 figures, Rwanda’s parliament has over 60% women MPs. Go Rwanda! OK, let’s remind ourselves of today’s vocabulary. 

Georgina
Of course. To stand is the verb we use when someone is a candidate in an election – when someone stands for election you can vote for them. 

Sam
If you can see yourself as something, it means that you can imagine yourself doing that thing. 

Georgina
The prospect of something, is the possibility of something, so for example, the prospect of becoming an MP is something that excites Lucrece. 

Sam
Something that we all hate, except when we use it ourselves, is jargon. Words and language that are very specific to a particular job and which are difficult for people outside that profession to understand. 

Georgina
People who grow up without enough money and without access to education can be said to come from a disadvantaged background

Sam
And finally, to tailor something is to change it to make it suitable for a particular purpose. 

Georgina
So for example, if you want to make politics accessible for more people, you have to tailor your language and cut out the jargon

Sam
Indeed! Well, it’s time for us to go now, but do join us again soon. Bye for now. 

Georgina
Bye!

 ......................................................
 

Govt in disarray over 'further delay' to FY2020 budget

Jan 24. 2020
Deputy Prime Minister Somkid Jatusripitak
Deputy Prime Minister Somkid Jatusripitak
Facebook Twitter

By The Nation

A possible further delay to the passage of the budget bill for fiscal 2020 into law has sent the government into a panic mode, in fear of severe economic impact.

  The government has prepared a contingency plan should the budget bill face further delay due to legal issues, says officials.

   Deputy Prime Minister Somkid Jatusripitak on Thursday(January 23) admitted that the government did not know when the Bt3.2-trillion budget bill will become law and how much longer budget disbursement will be delayed after it has already been delayed for four months.

  His comment came after House speaker Chuan Leekpai submitted a request to the Constitutional Court, seeking its ruling on the verification of the bill after two Bhumjaithai MPs (Chalong Toedweerapong and Natee Ratchakitprakarn) were accused of casting their vote without being present during the voting process.

   The bill's passage was first delayed amid the political impasse after the general election in March, from its annual implementation in October. The government then expected it to be passed into law in February this year. The Thai fiscal year starts in October and ends in September.

  If the budget is put off again, it would delay public spending as a series of procedures have to be completed before budget disbursement could take place, Somkid said.  

  “The government may have just four months left for public investments, it could derail much of the planned projects. Such problem should have not occurred,” Somkid said in reference to the legal hurdle.

  When asked if the government would resort to issuing an emergency decree to jump start public spending, Somkid said it should not do so as the case had been forwarded to the Constitutional Court.

 Meanwhile, Director of Budget Bureau Dechapiwat Na Songkhla, said the government might run out of cash by March. 

  In the event of a delay to the passage of a budget bill, the government is allowed by law to spend in advance 50 per cent of the amount set in the bill. 

  In the past four months of delay, October to January, the government had  spent Bt1 trillion, leaving it a balance of just Bt500 billion in the absence of the FY2020 budget.  

 The amount may be enough to cover government expenditure until March before the coffers of state agencies dry up, he warned.

   The Budget Bureau will ask Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha and the Cabinet to consider raising advance spending to 75 per cent of the total amount under the 2020-budget bill, he said, adding that it would allow the administration to carry on until May and avoid a potential government shutdown.   

  To lessen impact from the delay, the government plans to accelerate capital spending of Bt 223.3 billion and current spending items such as state officials' salary of Bt776.7 billion by the end of March, he added.

  Stock investors were also unsettled by the latest development, leading to share sales and a drop in the SET index.

Minister to seek free visas for Chinese, Indian tourists; floats ‘Eat, Shop, Spend’ scheme for foreigners

Jan 24. 2020

Facebook Twitter

By THE NATION

The Ministry of Tourism and Sports will propose tourism stimulus measures to the Cabinet on January 31.

Pipat further added that Thailand needs to act fast regarding the visa privilege or risk losing tourists to neighbouring countries such as Malaysia, which has announced free visas for Chinese and Indian tourists throughout 2020.

The free visa measure is expected to increase Indian tourists to 2.5 million from last year’s 1.9 million, while the number of Chinese tourists could exceed 12 million from last year’s 11 million, Pipat added.

“Apart from visa measures, the ministry has also come up with several other plans to boost tourism, including a campaign similar to the government’s ‘Eat, Shop, Spend’ scheme but targeted at foreign tourists,” he said. “We will discuss the possibility of handing out cash coupons to foreign tourists visiting Thailand, which should help boost their spending and dampen the effects of the baht appreciation. We expect to use the central budget to fund this project.”

The Ministry of Tourism and Sports estimates revenue from the tourism industry in 2020 to reach Bt3.4 trillion, higher than last year’s Bt3.01 trillion. The number of foreign tourists visiting Thailand is expected to reach 40.5 million to 41 million people and generate income of at least Bt2.1 trillion.

 ........................................................

FINISHED

January 24, 2020

 


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