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We are safe in this forest more than a town. Isn't it?

 

 Brad Pitt

 

 

What are Intensifiers?

February 06, 2020

Everyday Grammar: What are intensifiers?
Everyday Grammar: What are intensifiers?
 
What are Intensifiers?

The Fast and the Furious films, a series of car-racing movies, often describe a product called NOS, short for nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is a fuel that racers use to give more power to their cars.

Racers push the NOS button on the controls, and their cars suddenly go much faster.

 

Today on Everyday Grammar, we will explore the world of intensifiers -- words that increase the power of other words. You might say intensifiers are like the nitrous oxide of the English language. And just like NOS can be useful in a race, understanding intensifiers can help you when you are reading or listening to something in English.

Let us begin with a few definitions.

Definitions

Intensifiers are words that make adjectives and adverbs stronger.

Let me give you an example. Imagine a person uses the adjective cool to describe a car, as in:

“That car is cool.”

That same person might strengthen or enforce the meaning of cool by using an intensifier, as in:

“That car is so cool.”

Common English intensifiers are words such as veryreally and so. Very is probably the most formal, while the word so is probably the least formal.

The least formal intensifier, so, will be our subject of discussion today.

History

The word so has an unusual history.

The Online Etymology Dictionary notes that so comes from the Old English term swa. The Google Ngrams search engine shows so appearing as far back as the year 1500, the first year in Google’s book records.

Google Ngrams - so
Google Ngrams - so

So has had many meanings over time. We cannot explore all of these today. But as an intensifier, so appears to have been used in the early 1900s - and perhaps even earlier. Then, it fell out of everyday usage.

A little over 25 or 30 years ago, so, as an intensifier, started to make a comeback. Language experts in England, Canada and the United States noted and studied its rise in popularity.

Studies about so

Sali Tagliamonte and Chris Roberts looked at the rise of so by using transcripts of the American television show Friends. They found that the usage of so in Friends was similar to other studies of how English speakers used the term. In other words, the language in the TV show was close to the language of real life.

What Tagliamonte and Roberts found was that so was fast becoming one of the most common intensifiers in everyday speech throughout North America. It was replacing the word really as the top intensifier.

In a separate study, Tagliamonte found that so was by far the most common intensifier in new kinds of written communication – often in text messages.

One possible explanation is that so is much faster to type on a computer or other electronic device. It also takes up less space in a message where space is so important.

Why so (and other intensifiers) can help you

You might be wondering why intensifiers are important.

Intensifiers are important because they often provide useful information about other words.

As we said earlier, intensifiers go with adjectives and adverbs. If you see a sentence with difficult words, you can use your knowledge of intensifiers to predict the meaning of unknown words.

Here are two examples. Can you provide the missing words?

“That engine is so ___________.”

“The car race was so ________ to watch!”

In both sentences, one word is missing. But you know that because both statements have intensifiers, the missing words are probably adjectives or adverbs. And since both statements appear to offer a description, you can probably predict that the missing words are adjectives.

The context of the sentences before and after the statements can tell you if the adjective is either positive or negative in meaning. Imagine one of our example statements went on, as in:

“The car race was so ________ to watch! I loved it!”

You can tell from the sentence “I loved it!” that the missing adjective is probably positive in meaning. Perhaps the adjective means fun?

Closing thoughts

The next time you are reading books written in English or listening to English speakers, try to find examples of intensifiers. Keep a record of them and try to use them in your own writing and speaking. But try not to use them too much. Like NOS in the Fast and the Furious movies, intensifiers are best used at certain times and for certain reasons.

And that’s Everyday Grammar.

I’m Jill Robbins.

And I’m John Russell.

John Russell wrote this story for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

button – n. part on an electronic equipment that is to be pushed

etymology – n. an explanation of where a word came from; the history of a word

dictionary – n. a book that lists and defines the words of a language

transcript – n. a written, printed, or typed copy of words that have been spoken

type – v. to write something on a word processor, computer or other electronic device

context – n. conditions that form the setting for an idea or event

positive – adj. agreeable; having good qualities

negative – adj. disagreeable; lacking good qualities

certain – adj. chosen or given; some

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

 

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............................................................

LIVE: The 92nd Academy Awards

2 hours ago

Preparation for the 92nd Academy Awards continues along the red carpet area in Los Angeles, California, U.S., February 8, 2020. REUTERS/Mike Blake
Preparation for the 92nd Academy Awards continues along the red carpet area in Los Angeles, California, U.S., February 8, 2020. REUTERS/Mike Blake
 

EDITOR'S NOTE: The most recent updates appear on the top. Please refresh the page to see the latest information.

0226 UTC: Lin-Manuel Miranda, creator of the Broadway hit Hamilton, is on stage ahead of the presentation of the best original song Oscar.

Now, rapper Eminem is performing his Oscar-winning song "Lose Yourself," which played in the 2002 hip-hop drama "8 Mile." Eminem was the first rapper to win an Oscar in the category.

0217 UTC: The Oscar for best supporting actress goes to Laura Dern, who plays an energetic, powerful divorce lawyer in "Marriage Story." It is her first Oscar win. ​She calls the honor the "greatest birthday present ever." Dern turned 53 on February 10.

0207 UTC: Next up is best documentary feature and best documentary short subject. Documentaries are films that tell facts about actual people and events.

The Oscar for documentary feature goes to..."American Factory." The film looks at a former American automobile factory now operating as a Chinese business. The film was a joint project between Netflix and the production company of former U.S. President Barack Obama and former first lady Michelle Obama.

Co-director Julia Reichert said in her acceptance speech, "Working people have it harder and harder these days...We believe that things will get better when workers of the world unite.

The Oscar winner for documentary short is "Learning to Skateboard in a Warzone [If You're a Girl]" It tells about young girls in Afghanistan learning to read, write and skateboard in Kabul. Director Carol Dysinger says, "I've been working in Afghanistan since 2005. And this movie is a love letter to all the girls I have met..."

0156 UTC: Comedians Maya Rudolph and Kristen Wiig are presenting the Oscar for production design and costume design.

And the Oscar goes to..."Once upon a Time in Hollywood." It is the film's second Oscar of the night, following Brad Pitt's win at the start of the night.

Before they present the Oscar for costume design, Rudolph and Wiig break into song! They are singing a mix of songs that relate to fashion or clothing. The audience loves it.

 
Sam Stryker
 
@sbstryker
 

I would watch three hours of Maya Rudolph and Kristen Wiig

View image on Twitter
 
219 people are talking about this
 

Now, onto the Oscar. The winner is..."Little Women." The movie has five more chances for more Oscars tonight!

0151 UTC: The Oscar for live action short film goes to "The Neighbors' Window," a funny and emotional film that tells about New York City couples observing the lives of their neighbors.

0146 UTC: The Oscar for best adapted screenplay goes to "Jojo Rabbit." New Zealand filmmaker Taika Waititi says he hopes his win inspires "all the indigenous kids" around the world. "We are the original storytellers," he adds. Waititi's father is Maori.

0137 UTC: Diane Keaton and Keanu Reeves are on stage to present the Oscar for original screenplay.

The nominees are: Knives Out, Marriage Story, 1917, Once upon a Time...in Hollywood and Parasite. This is the only Oscar nomination for Knives Out, but the other nominees are up for many more Oscars tonight!

And the Oscar goes to...Parasite! "This is very personal to South Korea," director Boon Joon-Ho says in English.

0122 UTC: Actress Mindy Kaling is presenting the awards for best animated feature film and best animated short film.

The winner for best animated feature goes to: Toy Story 4!

 

The Oscar for best animated short goes to "Hair Love." It follows the story of an African-American family whose father must do his daughter's hair for the first time.

The directors say their aim with the film was to "normalize black hair" and increase representation in film, especially animated films. They dedicate their win to basketball player Kobe Bryant.

You can watch the short film here:

 

 

0116 UTCBrad Pitt wins the first Oscar of the night! In "Once upon a Time...in Hollywood," Pitt plays a stuntman, a performer who stands in for movie actors to do difficult and dangerous moves.

This is Pitt's second Oscar win but his first in an acting category. His keeps his acceptance speech short; he noted that he and other winners this evening have been given a 45-second time limit.

 
Steve Herman
 
@W7VOA
 

Accepting his Supporting Actor award, Brad Pitt notes he only has 45 seconds to give acceptance speech, "which is 45 seconds more than the Senate gave John Bolton this week."

 
121 people are talking about this
 
 
Brad Pitt arrives at the Oscars on Sunday, Feb. 9, 2020, at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles. (Photo by Richard Shotwell/Invision/AP)
Brad Pitt arrives at the Oscars on Sunday, Feb. 9, 2020, at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles. (Photo by Richard Shotwell/Invision/AP)

0112 UTCAcademy Award-winning actress Regina King is presenting the first award of the night, best supporting actor.

The nominees are:

Tom Hanks (A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood)

Anthony Hopkins (The Two Popes)

Al Pacino (The Irishman)

Joe Pesci (The Irishman)

Brad Pitt (Once upon a Time...in Hollywood)

0106 UTC: Comedians Chris Rock and Steve Martin, both former hosts of the Oscars, are on stage. They have the audience laughing, with jokes like "I liked the first season of The Irishman!" (The film, nominated for 10 Oscars, runs 3 hours and 30 minutes). They also remarked that "something was missing" among the nominees for best director; the Academy was criticized for not nominating any female directors.

0100 UTC: And so it begins! Like last year, there is no host of this year's Oscars. Instead, there will be a series of performances by many different actors and singers.

The show opens with Janelle Monae singing "Won't You Be My Neighbor" from the beloved Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. A film about the show, "A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood," is among the night's nominees. Actor Tom Hanks earned a best supporting actor nomination for playing Mister Rogers in the film.

 
Emma Gray
 
@emmaladyrose

Janelle Monae please be my neighbor

View image on Twitter
 
See Emma Gray's other Tweets

That category will be the first Oscar presented tonight!

1230 UTC: Welcome to VOA Learning English's live coverage of the 92nd Academy Awards, or Oscars. The biggest night in Hollywood begins at 0100 UTC. Follow along here and on the Learning English Facebook page.

Many of the most talked-about nominees have been making their way down the red carpet, including the cast of "Parasite." The Korean-language film is nominated for both best picture and best international feature film. Director Bong Joon Ho says even if his film does not win, he believes a foreign-language movie will soon win a best picture Oscar.

“Regardless of the outcome, I think the door has been opened,” the director told the Associated Press. “I think as long as we continue this effort, the door will just open wider and wider.”

The cast of
The cast of "Parasite" arrives at the Oscars on Sunday, Feb. 9, 2020, at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles. (AP Photo/John Locher)

 

What are Intensifiers?

February 06, 2020

Everyday Grammar: What are intensifiers?
Everyday Grammar: What are intensifiers?
 
What are Intensifiers?
 

The Fast and the Furious films, a series of car-racing movies, often describe a product called NOS, short for nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is a fuel that racers use to give more power to their cars.

Racers push the NOS button on the controls, and their cars suddenly go much faster.

 

Today on Everyday Grammar, we will explore the world of intensifiers -- words that increase the power of other words. You might say intensifiers are like the nitrous oxide of the English language. And just like NOS can be useful in a race, understanding intensifiers can help you when you are reading or listening to something in English.

Let us begin with a few definitions.

Definitions

Intensifiers are words that make adjectives and adverbs stronger.

Let me give you an example. Imagine a person uses the adjective cool to describe a car, as in:

“That car is cool.”

That same person might strengthen or enforce the meaning of cool by using an intensifier, as in:

“That car is so cool.”

Common English intensifiers are words such as veryreally and so. Very is probably the most formal, while the word so is probably the least formal.

The least formal intensifier, so, will be our subject of discussion today.

History

The word so has an unusual history.

The Online Etymology Dictionary notes that so comes from the Old English term swa. The Google Ngrams search engine shows so appearing as far back as the year 1500, the first year in Google’s book records.

Google Ngrams - so
Google Ngrams - so

So has had many meanings over time. We cannot explore all of these today. But as an intensifier, so appears to have been used in the early 1900s - and perhaps even earlier. Then, it fell out of everyday usage.

A little over 25 or 30 years ago, so, as an intensifier, started to make a comeback. Language experts in England, Canada and the United States noted and studied its rise in popularity.

Studies about so

Sali Tagliamonte and Chris Roberts looked at the rise of so by using transcripts of the American television show Friends. They found that the usage of so in Friends was similar to other studies of how English speakers used the term. In other words, the language in the TV show was close to the language of real life.

What Tagliamonte and Roberts found was that so was fast becoming one of the most common intensifiers in everyday speech throughout North America. It was replacing the word really as the top intensifier.

In a separate study, Tagliamonte found that so was by far the most common intensifier in new kinds of written communication – often in text messages.

One possible explanation is that so is much faster to type on a computer or other electronic device. It also takes up less space in a message where space is so important.

Why so (and other intensifiers) can help you

You might be wondering why intensifiers are important.

Intensifiers are important because they often provide useful information about other words.

As we said earlier, intensifiers go with adjectives and adverbs. If you see a sentence with difficult words, you can use your knowledge of intensifiers to predict the meaning of unknown words.

Here are two examples. Can you provide the missing words?

“That engine is so ___________.”

“The car race was so ________ to watch!”

In both sentences, one word is missing. But you know that because both statements have intensifiers, the missing words are probably adjectives or adverbs. And since both statements appear to offer a description, you can probably predict that the missing words are adjectives.

The context of the sentences before and after the statements can tell you if the adjective is either positive or negative in meaning. Imagine one of our example statements went on, as in:

“The car race was so ________ to watch! I loved it!”

You can tell from the sentence “I loved it!” that the missing adjective is probably positive in meaning. Perhaps the adjective means fun?

Closing thoughts

The next time you are reading books written in English or listening to English speakers, try to find examples of intensifiers. Keep a record of them and try to use them in your own writing and speaking. But try not to use them too much. Like NOS in the Fast and the Furious movies, intensifiers are best used at certain times and for certain reasons.

And that’s Everyday Grammar.

I’m Jill Robbins.

And I’m John Russell.

John Russell wrote this story for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

button – n. part on an electronic equipment that is to be pushed

etymology – n. an explanation of where a word came from; the history of a word

dictionary – n. a book that lists and defines the words of a language

transcript – n. a written, printed, or typed copy of words that have been spoken

type – v. to write something on a word processor, computer or other electronic device

context – n. conditions that form the setting for an idea or event

positive – adj. agreeable; having good qualities

negative – adj. disagreeable; lacking good qualities

certain – adj. chosen or given; some

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

............................................................
 
          
 

6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

Why more of us are getting fitter together

EPISODE 171123 / 23 NOV 2017

Group exercise has become very popular in recent years. Rob and Catherine talk about going to the gym and why gym membership is becoming increasingly popular and teach you new vocabulary.

This week's question 

How many people are members of a gym, here in the UK? Is it...

a) 1 in 2,

b) 1 in 7 or

c) 1 in 10? 

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary 

motivating
something that makes us want to do something

push yourself
force yourself to try harder

work out
to exercise in order to improve your health and fitness

fragmented
broken up into small pieces

tribal
something that belongs to a group of people who live together and share the same language and culture

commune
to get close to someone or something

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word-for-word transcript 

Rob
Hello, I'm Rob. Welcome to Six Minute English, where we get together to discuss an interesting topic along with six useful items of vocabulary to wrestle with.

Catherine
Yes, hello I'm Catherine. And today's topic is all about togetherness – because we're talking about going to the gym and why gym membership is becoming increasingly popular. So Rob… do you head off to your local gym after work?

Rob
No – I hate group exercise. I prefer to go for a run on my own. It's free, and I enjoy being outdoors. How about you Catherine?

Catherine
I really like group exercise Rob. I find it's very motivating.

Rob
When something is motivating it makes us want to do something. So what motivates you to go to the gym, Catherine?

Catherine
Well I go because I really like the spin classes.

Rob
Is that where you cycle on the spot while an instructor shouts at you?

Catherine
Well, yes that's the one! If I wasn't in a class, I don't think I would push myself so hard. I need someone to shout at me – to make me go faster and get up those hills.

Rob
Good and if you push yourself you force yourself to try harder – you set yourself a challenge. OK, Catherine – well you are part of a growing trend of people who like to work out – or exercise in a gym. So perhaps you can tell me, how many people are members of a gym, here in the UK? Is it…
a) 1 in 2,
b) 1 in 7 or
c) 1 in 10?

Catherine
I'm going to go for 1 in 10.

Rob
Well – we'll find out if you chose the right answer later on. Now let's listen to Philip Mills – he runs the sports fitness company Les Mills – named after his father, who was a track and field athlete who represented New Zealand for twenty years. Philip has a theory to explain why group exercise has become so popular in recent years.

Philip Mills, CEO of Les Mills International
As people have become more sedentary they've realised that they need to move for their health. We work about 35% more hours than we used to work in the 60s. And people are too busy to play sports. Society has become fragmented and a lot of the things that used to bring people together don't exist anymore. But, you know, we're tribal animals – pack animals – and the gym has been one of the things that helps people to commune.

Catherine
Yes our sedentary lifestyles! We do all spend too much time sitting down, don't we, Rob?

Rob
Yes, and according to Philip we're probably spending more time sitting down than we used to because we're working a lot more.

Catherine
And because we're busier with work, we have less time to take exercise.

Rob
So why are we choosing to go to the gym these days, rather than heading down to the park to play football? Philip Mills thinks it's because society has become fragmented – and we're losing the social connectedness that made it easy to get together and take exercise.

Catherine
And fragmented means broken up into small pieces, by the way. The thing is, we miss that social connectedness – that feeling of belonging to a group – because we are essentially tribal animals. And a tribe is a group of people who live together and they share the same language and the same culture.

Rob
So even now most of us have left tribal society behind, we still want to feel like we're part of a group that we can commune with – which means to get close to someone or something.

Catherine
But the question is Rob, does group exercise at the gym actually succeed in connecting us with other people?

Rob
Well, Philip Mills thinks in the future we'll be cycling inside a video game using computer graphics – you know, visiting other planets, travelling to different times…

Catherine
Wow! But people will then be communing with a computer Rob, not really with each other?

Rob
I'm afraid so. And you won't even have a real instructor barking instructions at you!

Catherine
Well I suppose a computer will have a virtual instructor who will also be equally motivating!

Rob
Yes, I expect so. Now, remember I asked you, Catherine: How many people are members of a gym, here in the UK?

Catherine
I do remember you asking me that Rob and I said 1 in 10.

Rob
And you were wrong, I'm afraid! Figures collected by Leisure Data Base, a company that has audited the fitness industry for fifteen years, show that one in seven of the UK population is a member of a gym. And more and more will be signing up. Total membership could soon exceed ten million for the first time.

Catherine
Wow!

Rob
OK, now let's talk through the vocabulary items we heard today. Number one is 'motivating' – meaning something that makes us want to do something – 'I don't find the idea of cycling in a small room very motivating.'

Catherine
Now number two – If you push yourself, you force yourself to try harder – 'It's important to push yourself if you want to do well in your exams.'

Rob
Good advice there, Catherine. Next up is 'work out' – which means to exercise in order to improve your health and fitness. For example, 'Catherine works out three times a week by cycling on the spot.' Our fourth word is 'fragmented' or broken up into small pieces. For example, 'I suffer from fragmented sleep. I wake up five or six times a night.'

Catherine
Poor you! Alright, number four is 'tribal' – and the noun is 'tribe' – a group of people who live together and share the same language and culture.

Rob
'Football fans often wear the tribal colours of the team they support – some paint their faces too.'

Catherine
And finally we heard 'commune', which means to get close to someone or something. For example, Rob likes to commune with nature when he goes running. He enjoys the way the landscape changes with the seasons.'

Rob
Well said, Catherine. Now, that's all we have time for today. But if you would like to commune with us via our Facebook, Twitter or YouTube pages, please do so.

Catherine/Rob
Bye!

..................................................................

 

Korat carnage death toll 27; suspect had conflict with his commander: PM

Feb 09. 2020
Prayut Chan-o-cha
Prayut Chan-o-cha
Facebook Twitter

By The Nation

Twenty-seven people were killed in the Korat mass shooting, including the suspect, while 57 people were injured, Prime Minister General Prayut Cha-o-cha said on Sunday.

In a press conference held at Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, he said 32 people were severely injured and eight had to undergo surgery.

The prime minister said that such an incident had never happened and he hoped it would never happen again. He said the public sector must learn from the tragedy how to handle similar situations in the future.The government was shocked by the event, but it was ready to provide mental and financial support to the families of the victims, he said.

He expressed his gratitude to people who had donated blood, exemplifying the unity of the country when all sections of society collaborate.

Speaking about the motive for the carnage, the PM said the suspect, a soldier, was involved in the brokerage business with his commander and they had a conflict.

Earlier reports had suggested that they did a property brokerage business together, which reportedly led to a conflict and the suspect killing his commander and going on a shooting spree.

 

The PM warned the media against reporting news in a way that would aggravate an already divided society, by making referencea to political conflicts between conservatives and liberal camps.

.................................................
 

NBTC to summon journalists over coverage of Korat killings

Feb 09. 2020
 
Facebook Twitter

By The Nation

The secretary-general of the National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission (NBTC), Takorn Tantasith, said in a Twitter message on Sunday (February 9) that the NBTC would call journalists and press after some of them broadcast live footage of officers preparing operations against the suspect who was holed up in the Terminal 21 department store.

Some reportedly even alerted people in the mall about impending action. The suspect, according to reports, was watching television.

Government regulations prohibit actions that compromise security. Officials have collected all evidence for punishment.

.................................................................

 

February 10, 2020


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กฎกติกาการเขียนเรื่องและแสดงความคิดเห็น
1 การเขียน หรือแสดงความคิดเห็นใด ๆ ต้องไม่หมิ่นเหม่ หรือกระทบต่อสถาบันชาติ ศาสนา และพระมหากษัตริย์ หรือกระทบต่อความมั่นคงของชาติ
2. ไม่ใช้ถ้อยคำหยาบคาย ดูหมิ่น ส่อเสียด ให้ร้ายผู้อื่นในทางเสียหาย หรือสร้างความแตกแยกในสังคม กับทั้งไม่มีภาพ วิดีโอคลิป หรือถ้อยคำลามก อนาจาร
3. ความขัดแย้งส่วนตัวที่เกิดจากการเขียนเรื่อง แสดงความคิดเห็น หรือในกล่องรับส่งข้อความ (หลังไมค์) ต้องไม่นำมาโพสหรือขยายความต่อในบล็อก และการโพสเรื่องส่วนตัว และการแสดงความคิดเห็น ต้องใช้ภาษาที่สุภาพเท่านั้น
4. พิจารณาเนื้อหาที่จะโพสก่อนเผยแพร่ให้รอบคอบ ว่าจะไม่เป็นการละเมิดกฎหมายใดใด และปิดคอมเมนต์หากจำเป็นโดยเฉพาะเรื่องที่มีเนื้อหาพาดพิงสถาบัน
5.การนำเรื่อง ภาพ หรือคลิปวิดีโอ ที่มิใช่ของตนเองมาลงในบล็อก ควรอ้างอิงแหล่งที่มา และ หลีกเลี่ยงการเผยแพร่สิ่งที่ละเมิดลิขสิทธิ์ ไม่ว่าจะเป็นรูปแบบหรือวิธีการใดก็ตาม 6. เนื้อหาและความคิดเห็นในบล็อก ไม่เกี่ยวข้องกับทีมงานผู้ดำเนินการจัดทำเว็บไซต์ โดยถือเป็นความรับผิดชอบทางกฎหมายเป็นการส่วนตัวของสมาชิก
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OKnation ขอสงวนสิทธิ์ในการปิดบล็อก ลบเนื้อหาและความคิดเห็น ที่ขัดต่อความดังกล่าวข้างต้น โดยไม่ต้องชี้แจงเหตุผลใดๆ ต่อเจ้าของบล็อกและเจ้าของความคิดเห็นนั้นๆ
   

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