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link@: learning english with voa news : Thursday, February 13, 2020

 

Don't you know what day is today?  Eclair asked.

What day is today? If you answer that, today is Friday, it is a joke. Because it will be better if you answer today is Valentine's Day instead. But just a moment, please. Do you know quite well about Valentine's Day?
I think that you know only it is a Loving Day. But this Cristian's Day has more stories.
Well, a part of the day's story is below.

Origins of Valentine’s Day: A Pagan Festival in February
While some believe that Valentine’s Day is celebrated in the middle of February to commemorate the anniversary of Valentine’s death or burial–which probably occurred around A.D. 270–others claim that the Christian church may have decided to place St. Valentine’s feast day in the middle of February in an effort to “Christianize” the pagan celebration of Lupercalia. Celebrated at the ides of February, or February 15, Lupercalia was a fertility festival dedicated to Faunus, the Roman god of agriculture, as well as to the Roman founders Romulus and Remus.

READ MORE: 6 Surprising Facts About St. Valentine

To begin the festival, members of the Luperci, an order of Roman priests, would gather at a sacred cave where the infants Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, were believed to have been cared for by a she-wolf or Lupa. The priests would sacrifice a goat, for fertility, and a dog, for purification. They would then strip the goat’s hide into strips, dip them into the sacrificial blood and take to the streets, gently slapping both women and crop fields with the goat hide. Far from being fearful, Roman women welcomed the touch of the hides because it was believed to make them more fertile in the coming year. Later in the day, according to legend, all the young women in the city would place their names in a big urn. The city’s bachelors would each choose a name and become paired for the year with his chosen woman. These matches often ended in marriage.
ETC.

As usual today again I would like to thanks Google Translate and G Grammarly with awfully love.

 

FRANCE 24 English – LIVE – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/NbKzACYrWZQ

Watch ABC News live https://youtu.be/sx4e405BJxs

......................................................

A Common Form: Be + Adjective + Infinitive

3 hours ago

 
A Common Form: Be + Adjective + Infinitive
 

On a recent Everyday Grammar program, we talked about the phrase “be willing to.” For example, you might say, “She was willing to travel during the rainy season.” The adjective “willing” belongs to a group of more than 30 adjectives that are followed by infinitive verbs.

You probably remember that the infinitive form of a verb is “to” plus its simplest form. In the sentence about the woman, the infinitive verb is “to travel.”

Adjectives followed by infinitives are the subject of today’s Everyday Grammar program.

Generally, the adjectives in this group describe a person or people, not a thing. Many of them describe a person’s attitude toward or feeling about something.

Listen to two sentences and decide which sounds better:

I am happy to see you.
I am happy seeing you.

If the first sounds more natural, it is probably because you have heard infinitive verbs after the adjective “happy” many times in English. In the example, the infinitive is “to see.”

If the second sentence – “I am happy seeing you” – sounds strange, it is because we don’t use gerunds after “happy.” A gerund is a verb that ends in –ing, such as “seeing.” The grammar of “I am happy seeing you” is incorrect, but the listener might still understand your meaning.

“Happy” follows the structure be + adjective + infinitive. Other adjectives in this group include: easy, hard, careful, prepared, good, relieved and difficult.

Are you careful to check if the sign says
Are you careful to check if the sign says "walk" or "don't walk" before you cross a busy street?

A short exercise

Next, I have Jill Robbins joining me to demonstrate the grammar with a short exercise. Jill, I’ll ask you a question and you answer it using an adjective followed by an infinitive verb. Are you ready?

Yes, I’m ready.

Here’s the first one:

Alice: Crossing busy streets in D.C. can be dangerous. What are you careful to do before you cross the street?

Jill: I am careful to put away my phone before I cross the street. I am also careful to check whether the sign says “walk” or “don’t walk.”

Good job! You used the adjective “careful” plus the infinitive verbs “to put away” and “to check” in your answer.

I noticed you used the adverb “also” in your second sentence. That’s great! Adding an adverb is common in be + adjective + infinitive phrases since we often use them to express attitudes and feelings.

Let’s do another:

Alice: I noticed that you worked long hours yesterday. When you got home last night, what were you relieved to do?

Jill: I was relieved to take off my shoes. I was also relieved to sit down for dinner. Later, I was ready to sleep.

Very good! You used the adjective “relieved” followed by the infinitives “to take off” and “to sit down.”

And I used the adjective “ready,” which also belongs to the group of adjectives we’re discussing today. I followed it with the infinitive “to sleep.”

Yes! And you used the past tense of “be,” which is “was.”

After working a long day, you would probably be relieved to sit down for dinner.
After working a long day, you would probably be relieved to sit down for dinner. "Relieved" belongs to a group of adjectives followed by infinitives.

Let’s do one more:

Alice: Some things in life are easy to do and some are hard to do. What is something that is hard to do?

Jill: It is really hard to change a habit.

You’re right about that! It is hard to change habits.

Jill used the adjective “hard” followed by the infinitive verb “to change.”

Notice that she started this sentence with the pronoun “It.” When we use “it” in this way, the pronoun is not the true subject of the sentence. The true subject is the infinitive verb, but we do not speak this way. Consider these two examples. Which sounds more natural?

It is hard to change a habit.
To change a habit is hard.

The sentence “It is hard to change a habit” sounds more natural, even though the true subject is “to change.”

In English, we rarely begin sentences with infinitive verbs, except in some kinds of writing, such as poetry and other forms of literature.

By the way, if we wanted to write the sentence another way, we could replace the infinitive subject “to change” with the gerund “changing.” Then the sentence becomes: “Changing a habit is hard,” and “changing” is the subject of the sentence.

But for today’s lesson, what’s important is knowing you will see and hear sentences with be + adjective + infinitive everywhere. And they sometimes begin with the pronoun “It.”

What can you do?

So, what can you do to practice?

Here’s one idea: Try to become familiar with the 30+ adjectives that are followed by infinitives, without trying to memorize them. I will provide the list on our website.

Then, the next time you hear those adjectives in real life, in a song, on television or in a movie, listen for the structure we talked about today. Try to make note of the example in your phone or a notebook.

You can also practice writing your own sentences and using them when you speak English to friends or practice partners. With time and practice, you will be delighted to use the structure whenever you speak or write English.

I’m Alice Bryant.

And I'm Jill Robbins

Alice Bryant wrote this story for Learning English. Kelly Jean Kelly was the editor.

_____________________________________________________________

Reference

Below is a list of the most common adjectives followed by infinitives.

amazed
angry
awkward
careless
clever
crazy
delighted
difficult
disappointed
easy

funny
generous
glad
happy
hard
horrified
impossible
lucky
kind
nice
odd

 

proud
relieved
ridiculous
rude
sad
selfish
silly
sorry
strange
stupid
surprised
wise

 

__________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

phrase – n. a group of two or more words that express a single idea but do not usually form a complete sentence

attitude – n. the way you think and feel about someone or something

relieved – adj. feeling relaxed and happy because something difficult or unpleasant has been stopped

habit – n. a repeated behavior, especially one that is hard to give up

practice – v. the do something again and again in order to get better at it

familiar – adj. frequently seen, heard, or experienced

delighted – adj. full of great pleasure or satisfaction

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February 12, 2020

February 12, 2020
A look at the best news photos from around the world.

Members of Kurdish Peshmerga Special Forces demonstrate their skills during their graduation ceremony at a military camp in Soran district, in Erbil province, Iraq.
1Members of Kurdish Peshmerga Special Forces demonstrate their skills during their graduation ceremony at a military camp in Soran district, in Erbil province, Iraq.
People walk during heavy snowfall in Minsk, Belarus.
2People walk during heavy snowfall in Minsk, Belarus.
Opposition leader Juan Guaido waves to supporters during a rally at Bolivar Plaza in Chacao, Venezuela, Feb. 11, 2020. 
3Opposition leader Juan Guaido waves to supporters during a rally at Bolivar Plaza in Chacao, Venezuela, Feb. 11, 2020. 
Rescue workers known as the White Helmet search for victims in a house that was destroyed during a pro-regime forces airstrike outside Aleppo, Syria.
4Rescue workers known as the White Helmet search for victims in a house that was destroyed during a pro-regime forces airstrike outside Aleppo, Syria.
A boatman walks on a floating structure made of plastic near the banks of River Yamuna in Allahabad, India.
5A boatman walks on a floating structure made of plastic near the banks of River Yamuna in Allahabad, India.
A canadair bomber plane drops water onto a fire along the l'Arone Pass in the Bavella mountains in Quenza on the French Mediterranean island of Corsica. Strong winds from storm Ciara caused wildfires to spread on the island.
6A canadair bomber plane drops water onto a fire along the l'Arone Pass in the Bavella mountains in Quenza on the French Mediterranean island of Corsica. Strong winds from storm Ciara caused wildfires to spread on the island.
Rebecca Hirst, head of British product marketing of Samsung Electronics, shows the new Z Flip foldable smartphone during Samsung Galaxy Unpacked 2020 in San Francisco, California, Feb. 11, 2020.
7Rebecca Hirst, head of British product marketing of Samsung Electronics, shows the new Z Flip foldable smartphone during Samsung Galaxy Unpacked 2020 in San Francisco, California, Feb. 11, 2020.
Siba the Standard Poodle, winner of Best in Show, is seen with awards at the 2020 Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show at Madison Square Garden in New York, Feb. 11, 2020.
8Siba the Standard Poodle, winner of Best in Show, is seen with awards at the 2020 Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show at Madison Square Garden in New York, Feb. 11, 2020.
Italy's Dorothea Wierer is seen during training in Antholz-Anterselva, Italy, for 2020 Biathlon World Championships.
9Italy's Dorothea Wierer is seen during training in Antholz-Anterselva, Italy, for 2020 Biathlon World Championships.
Foreign prisoners, suspected of being part of the Islamic State, lie in a prison cell in Hasaka, Syria.
10Foreign prisoners, suspected of being part of the Islamic State, lie in a prison cell in Hasaka, Syria.

........................................................

 

6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

How resilient are you?

EPISODE 200213 / 13 FEB 2020

 

Introduction

How do you deal with difficult situations? Why do some people cope better in times of stress than others? Are we born with resilience or can we learn it? Rob and Georgina discuss resilience and teach you related vocabulary.

This week's question

‘Resilience’ is also a word used in science to describe the characteristic of a substance or object. But what does it mean?

a) It is very tough or hard

b) It can return to its original shape after being bent

c) It can turn from a solid into a liquid quickly

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary

resilient (adjective)
able to cope with difficult situations or to improve quickly after an illness or injury 

resilience (noun)
ability to cope with difficult situations or improve quickly after an illness or injury 

optimistic
have positive thoughts about the future and believe things will turn out well 

distress
feeling you get when you are worried or upset by something 

manifest
show clearly and is easy to notice

adversity
difficult situation in somebody’s life

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word-for-word transcript     

Rob
Hello, and welcome to 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. I'm Rob… 

Georgina
And I'm Georgina. 

Rob
Now, Georgina, how resilient are you? 

Georgina
Resilient? You mean able to cope with difficult situations. I have a pile of work to do today, but I’m remaining calm and not getting stressed. 

Rob
That's good, you are showing resilience. And today we’re discussing whether we’re born with resilience or we have to learn it. 

Georgina
OK, Rob. But first I expect you’re going to ask me a question – bring it on!   

Rob
OK. Resilience is also a word used in science to describe the characteristic of a substance or object. But what does it mean?
a) That it's is very tough or hard.
b) That it can return to its original shape after being bent.
c) It can turn from a solid into a liquid quickly. 

Georgina
I have a feeling it means b) an object that returns to its original shape after being bent.  

Rob
OK, I'll let you know if you were correct at the end of the programme. But let’s talk more about human resilience. There are many self-help books and motivational speakers all promising us we can learn to be resilient. 

Georgina
Well, it is a useful trait to have, and it’s something that can help you deal with many difficult situations from coping with the pressures of work to handling the death of a loved one. 

Rob
And it’s more than just telling someone to ‘toughen up’ or ‘get a grip’, as Dr David Westley knows. He is Head of Psychology at Middlesex University and talked about levels of resilience on the BBC World Service programme, The Why Factor. 

Dr David Westley, Head of Psychology at Middlesex University
First of all, there's our social supports, our communities, our families, the people who are important to us, the organisations we work for, so one way we can look at resilience is to measure that – the amount of social support available to us. Another way to think about resilience is to think about how we think about the situations we are in. So, for example, one way to look at that would be just to look at how optimistic people are as a guide to how resilient they might be when times get tough. And then a third level that we can look at for resilience is a biological level - how well we can soothe ourselves, calm ourselves down, how well we can actually regulate our own nervous systems at times of distress.

Georgina
Right, so Dr Westley describes social supports – the people around us who we can talk to and support us and generally make us feel better. I think he’s saying, with more support we feel more resilient. 

Rob
It’s interesting to note that a resilient person isn’t necessarily someone quiet, who doesn’t make a fuss and gets on with things. Some experts think it’s people who ask for help and use this social support network who are acting in a more resilient way. 

Georgina
It’s a good point. And another level of resilience is how optimistic someone is. Being optimistic means having positive thoughts about the future and believing things will turn out well. A positive mind means you can deal with situations that, at first, look tough. Another level Dr Westley mentioned was our biological level - how our bodies cope in times of distress. Distress is the feeling you get when you are worried or upset by something. 

Rob
So, when we’re distressed, a resilient person is able to soothe his or her body and regulate his or her nervous system, which helps them stay calm. 

Georgina
But, Rob, the big question is, are we born with resilience or can we learn it? Experts speaking on The Why Factor programme tended to think it could be learned. 

Rob
Yes, one of them is Ann Masten, a professor at the University of Minnesota. From her studies, she found it was something that we learn when we need to. 

Georgina
Ann Masten talks about how some of the children she studied manifest resilience from the start. When something manifests, it shows clearly and is easy to notice. They remain resilient despite adversity – a difficult time in their life they've had to face. 

Rob
Other children, what she calls the late bloomers, started off less resilient, struggled with adversity, but turned their lives around by becoming more resilient. Maybe we can learn resilience from a having a bad experience? 

Georgina
Well, one thing Ann went on to say was that families and friends can be a great support and help with resilience. Those that were ‘late bloomers’ only connected with adults and mentors later in life.   

Rob
Yes, she says that teachers or parents are role models in how to handle adversity. And children are watching; they're learning from the adults around them by seeing how they react when they get challenged by something. Time now to find out how resilient you are when you discover the correct answer to the question I asked earlier. I said that ‘resilience’ is also a word used in science to describe the characteristic of a substance or object. But what does it mean? Is it...
a) It is very tough or hard.
b) It can return to its original shape after being bent.
c) It can turn from a solid into a liquid quickly.
And what did you say, Georgina? 

Georgina
I said it was b) It can return to its original shape after being bent. 

Rob
And you are right - well done! Bamboo is a good example of a resilient material – you can bend it, it doesn’t break and returns to its original shape. 

Georgina
Thanks for the science lesson, Rob. Now we need to recap the vocabulary we’ve mentioned today… 

Rob
Yes, we’ve talked about being resilient, an adjective that describes someone’s ability to cope with difficult situations. When you do this you show resilience

Georgina
Someone who is optimistic has positive thoughts about the future and believes things will turn out well. 

Rob
Distress is the feeling you get when you are worried or upset by something. 

Georgina
When something manifests itself, it shows clearly and is easy to notice. And adversity is a difficult time in somebody’s life that they have had to face. 

Rob
And that brings us to the end of this discussion about resilience. Please join us again next time. Bye bye. 

Georgina
Bye.

..........................................................

 

 
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FINISHED 
 
February 14, 2020

 

 


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