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How about you when the weather cools down again? But the old person like me feels fall into trouble sure.

Many thanks to Google Translate together with G Grammarly as ever.

 

FRANCE 24 English – LIVE – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream

https://youtu.be/6N0lbZr_wXs

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Is Grammar Cool?

February 20, 2020

Today we ask,
Today we ask, "Is grammar cool?"
 
Is Grammar Cool?
 

In the American film Pulp Fiction, actor Samuel L. Jackson challenges two criminals. They are trying to take money from all of the people in a restaurant.

Jackson plays the part of a former criminal who used to carry out targeted killings. He wants to change his life and does not want to hurt people anymore. But he does not want to give his money to criminals either.

Jackson asks one of the criminals to use an adjective. He asks her to describe Fonzie, a character from the old American television show Happy Days.

“Nobody’s gonna hurt anybody. We’re all gonna be like three little Fonzies here. And what’s Fonzie like? Come on, Yalonda, what’s Fonzie like?

“Cool.”

“What?”

“Cool.”

“Correctamundo! And that is what we are going to be – we’re gonna be cool.”

Today, we will explore the term that Jackson wanted to hear: cool, a word that has both formal and casual uses. The casual, everyday uses of cool will be our topic of discussion.

But first, we begin with a little history.

History

Cool has its roots in the Old English term “col,” meaning “not warm,” notes the Online Etymology Dictionary.

Google Ngram has evidence of cool being used as far back as the 16th century.

Google Ngram results for 'cool'
Google Ngram results for 'cool'

In other words, cool has a long history. The writer William Shakespeare even used the term in many of his plays, including Othello and Much Ado About Nothing.

But cool’s meanings have changed over time.

By the 20th century, among its other meanings, cool eventually came to suggest a kind of effortlessness.

Fonzie, the character you heard about at the beginning of this report, gives you one example of the idea. He does humorous, wonderful things without seeming to try very hard.

 

Yet Fonzie did not invent cool. Some people claim this effortless, stylish way of acting is a product of African-American art.

Joel Dinerstein wrote a book called The Origins of Cool in Postwar America. He says cool came from an artistic movement led primarily by black musicians. Lester Young, a saxophone player, is said to have made the term popular in jazz music circles in the 1930s and 1940s.

“To be cool,” Dinerstein noted, “meant you carried personal authority through a stylish mask of stoicism.” In other words, cool meant you endured hardship, but did not express it outwardly.

 

Modern uses – adjective and adverb

Over time, cool lost its connection with artistic movements and became more common in everyday speech. It still carries many meanings – as a verb, noun, adjective and adverb.

However, in casual situations, Americans often use cool as an adjective or as an adverb.

Adjective

As an adjective, cool generally has three meanings. It can describe something as appealing in a way that people like – especially young people. For example, Americans often say things like “cool sunglasses” or “cool clothes.”

Cool can show approval in a very general way. Imagine you introduce one of your friends to your father. After the meeting, your friend might say,

“Your dad is so cool.”

Cool also can show acceptance, agreement, or understanding.

Consider this situation. You are running late to a meeting with a friend. You send a text message to apologize for your delay. Your friend might respond with the following message:

“That's cool – no worries.”

The Amazon television show Patriot used cool in this way. The main character, a spy named John Lakeman, often gets terrible news. He shows acceptance by saying “cool.”

 

"Cool... that’s cool."

Adverb

As an adverb, cool generally means in a calm manner. Two of the most common uses might be in the terms “act cool” and “play it cool.”

Imagine two children were playing around and accidentally broke something. Perhaps they broke a lamp or a dish in the house. Then, they hear one of their parents opening the door of their house. One child might say to the other:

“When dad walks in, just act cool – don’t say anything!”

or

“When mom comes in, we have to play it cool, or she will start to suspect something!”

A word of caution

Finally, a word of warning.

Americans generally describe other people with the adjective cool. They do not use it to describe themselves.

This is where culture and grammar meet. An American would consider a statement such as “I am cool” to be strange - even if it is grammatically correct.

So, when speaking with friends, feel free to use the term cool. Although informal, it has a good, positive meaning.

But you should think of cool as a gift you can give to others. If you give that gift to yourself, well, that’s just not cool.

I’m Jill Robbins.

And I’m John Russell.

John Russell wrote this story for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

challenge – v. to invite someone to take part in a competition; to compete against an opponent

character – n. a person in a play, movie or television show

formal – adj. done in an official way; relating to an important or ceremonial event

casual – adj. unofficial; done without much thought

topic – n. subject

etymology – n. an explanation of where a word came from : the history of a word

stoicism – n. the quality or behavior of a person who accepts what happens without protesting or showing emotion

introduce – v. to bring into use or operation; to make someone known to another person

grammar – n. the system and structure of a language

dad – n. someone’s father

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

 

Learn English Lesson 7 - What Are You Doing? https://youtu.be/Ka33lX-kbMg

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6 Minute English

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL

Could you give up fast fashion

 

EPISODE 200220 / 20 FEB 2020

Introduction

Lots of people are planning to buy no new clothes this year, favouring second-hand or making do with what they already have. However, sales at online fast fashion sites, trade is going well. Could you give up buying new clothes for a year? Would you do it over concerns with the environment? Georgina and Neil discuss this fashion and environment and teach you some useful items of vocabulary.

This week's question

Do you know how many items of clothing were sent to landfill in the UK in 2017? Was it… 

a)     23 million items

b)     234 million items 

c)      2.3 billion items

Listen to the programme to find out the answer.

Vocabulary

pledging
publicly promising to do something (you can make a pledge to do something)

outsourced
given to another company to do, often because that company has the skills to do it or it can be done cheaper

undercuts
if a company undercuts another, it charges less to do a job than its competitor

stems from (something)
caused by or a result of something

illogical
unreasonable - not sensible, more driven by emotions than practical reason

backlash
strong negative reaction to what is happening

Transcript 

Note: This is not a word-for-word transcript     

Georgina
Hello. This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. I'm Georgina… 

Neil
And I'm Neil. 

Georgina
In this programme, we’re talking about buying clothes and only wearing them a few times before buying more clothes! 

Neil
This is something known as fast fashion – it’s popular, it might make us feel good, but it’s not great for the environment. 

Georgina
Which is why lots of people this year are pledging – or promising publicly - to buy no new clothes. 

Neil
I for one am wearing the same shirt I bought seven years ago. 

Georgina
You’re certainly not a fashion victim, Neil! But first, let’s test your knowledge of fast fashion with a question. Do you know how many items of clothing were sent to landfill in the UK in 2017? Was it…
a)     23 million items,
b)     234 million items or
c)      2.3 billion items
What do you think, Neil? 

Neil
I’m sure it’s lots, but not billions, so I’m going to say 23 million items. 

Georgina
I shall tell you if you’re right at the end of the programme. Let’s talk more about fast fashion, which is being blamed for contributing to global warming. 

Neil
And discarded clothes – that means ones that are thrown away - are also piling up in landfill sites, and fibre fragments are flowing into the sea when clothes are washed. 

Georgina
It’s not great – and I’ve heard the average time someone wears something is just seven! So why is this, and what is driving our desire to keep buying more clothes? 

Neil
I think we should hear from fashion journalist Lauren Bravo, who’s been speaking on the BBC Radio 4 programme, You and Yours. She explained that clothes today are relatively cheaper than those from her parents’ days… 

Lauren Bravo, fashion journalist
A lot of clothing production got outsourced - offshored over to the developing world, so countries like Indonesia, India, Bangladesh and China
are now responsible for making the vast bulk of all the clothes that are sold in the UK. And with that, we've seen what we call ‘chasing the cheapest needle’ around the world, so the fashion industry constantly looking to undercut competitors, and with that clothes getting cheaper and cheaper and cheaper. 

Georgina
Right, so clothes – in the developed world at least – have become cheaper because they are produced in developing countries. These are countries which are trying to become more advanced economically and socially. 

Neil
So production is outsourced – that means work usually done in one company is given to another company to do, often because that company has the skills to do it. And in the case of fashion production, it can be done cheaper by another company based in a developing country. 

Georgina
Lauren used an interesting expression ‘chasing the cheapest needle’ – so the fashion industry is always looking to find the company which can make clothes cheaper –  a company that can undercut another one means they can do the same job cheaper. 

Neil
Therefore the price of clothes gets cheaper for us. 

Georgina
OK, so it might be good to be able to buy cheaper clothes. But why do we have to buy more – and only wear items a few times? 

Neil
It’s all about our obsession with shopping and fashion. It’s something Lauren Bravo goes on to explain on the You and Yours radio programme. See if you can hear what she blames for this obsession… 

Lauren Bravo, fashion journalist
Buying new things has almost become a trend in itself for certain generations. I think that feeling that you can't be seen in the same thing twice, it really stems from social media, particularly. And quite often people are buying those outfits to take a photo to put on Instagram. It sounds illogical, but I think when all of your friends are doing it there is this invisible pressure there. 

Georgina
Lauren makes some interesting points. Firstly, for some generations, there is just a trend for buying things. 

Neil
It does seem very wasteful, but, as Lauren says, some people don’t like to be seen wearing the same thing twice. And this idea is caused by social media – she uses the expression ‘stems from’.

Georgina
She describes the social pressure of needing to be seen wearing new clothes on Instagram. And the availability of cheap clothes means it’s possible to post new images of yourself wearing new clothes very regularly. 

Neil
Hmm, it sounds very wasteful and to me, illogical – not reasonable or sensible and more driven by emotions rather than any practical reason. 

Georgina
But, there is a bit of a backlash now – that’s a strong negative reaction to what is happening. Some people are now promising to buy second-hand clothes, or ‘vintage clothes’, or make do with the clothes they have and mend the ones they need. It could be the start of a new fashion trend. 

Neil
Yes, and for once, I will be on trend! And it could reduce the amount of clothes sent to landfill that you mentioned earlier. 

Georgina
Yes, I asked if you knew how many items of clothing were sent to landfill in the UK in 2017? Was it…
a)     23 million items,
b)     234 million items or
c)      2.3 billion items
What did you say, Neil? 

Neil
I said a) 23 million items. 

Georgina
And you were wrong. It’s actually 234 million items – that’s according to the Enviro Audit Committee. It also found that 1.2 billion tonnes of carbon emissions is released by the global fashion industry. 

Neil
Well, we’re clearly throwing away too many clothes but perhaps we can recycle some of the vocabulary we’ve mentioned today? 

Georgina
I think we can, starting with pledging - that means publicly promising to do something. You can make a pledge to do something. 

Neil
When something is outsourced,it is given to another company to do, often because that company has the skills to do it or it can be done cheaper. 

Georgina
And if one company undercuts another, it charges less to do a job than its competitor.   

Neil
The expression stems from means ‘is caused by’ or ‘a result of’. We mentioned that rise in fast fashion stems from sharing images on Instagram. 

Georgina
And we mentioned this being illogical. So it seems unreasonable - not sensible, and more driven by emotions rather than any practical reason. 

Neil
And a backlash is a strong negative reaction to what is happening. 

Georgina
And that brings us to the end of our discussion about fast fashion! Please join us again next time. Bye. 

Neil
Bye.

..............................................................

 

 

The plant that might stop Covid-19

Feb 21. 2020
 

Facebook Twitter

By The Nation

The Department of Thai Traditional Medicine and Government Pharmaceutical Organisation will sign a memorandum of understanding next Tuesday (February 25) on research into the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculate with an eye to developing a drug that can inhibit or kill the Covid-19 virus.

Dr Pramote Satienrat, deputy director-general of the Traditional Medicine Department, said on Friday (February 21) that interest in the plant – also known as cleat and green chireta – was keen 10 years ago amid the SARs pandemic.

“We already have the genetic code of the new virus and we know it’s different from that of SARs, but Andrographis paniculata has been shown to be effective in combating the pneumonia virus and the common cold.”

Pramote said researchers will recruit 10 healthy volunteers, feed them a plant extract and test their blood after five days. 

If the results are encouraging, a serum will be developed and tested against both the SARS and CoV-2 viruses. 

 .................................................

Future Forward faithful gather to watch verdict

Feb 21. 2020

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By The Nation

Future Forward Party supporters were on Friday (February 21) assembling at its Bangkok headquarters, some buying souvenirs to help cover the legal expenses of embattled party leader Thanathorn Juangroongruangkit.
 

With a Constitutional Court ruling on the party’s fate due at 3pm, the faithful obtained membership cards bearing a hand-drawn portrait of Thanathorn and top donors received T-shirts autographed by party MPs.

As a band played in the background, protective facemasks were distributed to ward off the Covid-19 virus.

Party executives speaking at the gathering insisted that Thanathorn’s financial loans to the party and some members – the primary move that landed him and the party in legal trouble – had adhered to the Constitution, but “the process is not in our favour”, as one put it.

Cold mornings forecast for upper Thailand, high waves in Gulf

Feb 21. 2020

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By THE NATION

The Thailand Meteorological Department forecast on Friday (February 21) that a high-pressure system still covers the Northeast and the South China Sea while continuous strong easterly winds prevail across the Gulf of Thailand.

The South will have isolated thundershowers with waves up to 2-3 metres high in the upper Gulf from Surat Thani upwards and 2-4 metres high in the lower Gulf from Nakhon Si Thammarat downwards. People along the shoreline should beware of inshore surges. All ships have been advised to proceed with caution, and small boats must stay ashore from February 21-24.

The weather forecast for the next 24 hours is as follows:

Northern region: Cool to cold weather in the morning, temperature lows of 15-20 degrees Celsius and highs of 33-36 degrees Celsius. Temperature is likely to drop to 4-13 degrees Celsius on hilltops.

Northeastern region: Cool to cold weather in the morning with strong winds; temperature lows of 16-21 degrees Celsius and highs of 31-34 degrees Celsius. Temperature likely to drop to 9-15 degrees Celsius on hilltops.

Central region: Cool weather in the morning with strong winds; temperature lows of 20-23 degrees Celsius and highs of 35-36 degrees Celsius.

Eastern region: Cool weather in the morning with strong winds; temperature lows of 19-23 degrees Celsius, highs of 34-36 degrees Celsius; waves 1-2 metres high.

Southern region (east coast): Partly cloudy with thundershowers in 10 per cent of the area; temperature lows of 21-25 degrees Celsius, highs of 31-34 degrees Celsius; waves 2-4 metres high.

Southern region (west coast): Partly cloudy with thundershowers in 10 per cent of the area; temperature lows of 22-26 degrees Celsius, highs of 33-35 degrees Celsius; waves 1-2 metres high.

Bangkok and surrounding areas: Cool weather and light fog in the morning; lows of 22-24 degrees, Celsius, highs of 35-36 degrees Celsius.

 ..........................................................
 
FINISHED
 
February 21, 2020
 
 

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