According to the toxic smog PM 2.5 in the country nowadays. And it's caused you have to know much as well
as you can.
Firstly, you ought to read about: Protective mask Can germ be real or not? as following;
Protective mask Can germs be real or not?
Health mask is a mask used to help protect the respiratory system from pollutants, toxins and pathogens. In many cases, doctors often recommend using a mask to prevent respiratory diseases. Because it is a way to prevent the spread of bacteria or viruses from person to person If you know how to use it correctly, it will help to prevent it more effectively.
Protective mask Made from fabric or polypropylene which is a plastic that is safe for users. The quality health mask must have at least 3 layers of filters to help prevent germs. Pollution or liquid from outside And helps absorb secretions or moisture from users Prevent germs from spreading to others
Type of mask
The mask that is sold in general is divided into 2 types according to the nature of the mask. And the efficiency of air filtration as follows
General health mask This type of health mask is quite firmer with the face. By attaching to the face In which the medical community is mostly And is often used to prevent the spread of the disease through coughing or sneezing, but the disadvantage of this type of mask is The area below the mask will not be able to prevent contamination from inhalation. The N95 masks are a type of health mask that helps to prevent very small germs. The effectiveness of the protection is higher than conventional masks. Due to the nature of this type of mask, it will cover the face, mouth and nose completely, causing the virus or contaminants to not pass through. This type of health mask is often used in the medical community that requires high safety from infection, including TB prevention. Or anthrax That is harmful to humans It is often used during work such as working with chemicals or using colors that may cause unpleasant odors. But using the N95 mask must be used appropriately Because different sizes and brands may affect the efficiency of air filtration Benefits of a health mask
The obvious benefit of the health mask is Health mask helps prevent pollution and germs from the environment. Including germs from others And prevent the spread of germs to others as well Therefore, most doctors recommend the general public to use the mask when the epidemic occurs. Because it reduces the risk of infection between people to people The study found that the mask helps filter out germs up to 80%, but still needs to be studied. For better performance
Restrictions of sanitary masks
Although the mask is useful in health protection But there are some limitations as follows
Not able to protect 100%. Most health masks have only about 80% protection performance, depending on the quality of the material. If it is a N95 type mask, it can protect 95% so users may still be at risk of infection Can not prevent all kinds of germs Although it can help prevent certain levels of pathogens, there is no specific test that can prevent any type of disease. Therefore, the mask cannot be used to prevent a particular disease. Use once Almost all types of sanitary masks are disposable. And cannot be reused Or can be cleaned Since when used, the germ will be stuck on the mask. If used repeatedly, it may cause the risk of infection. There is no clear research that helps prevent Although the medical community recommends using a mask to prevent pollution or respiratory infections. But there is still no clear study that the mask is effective in preventing respiratory diseases or pollution. Therefore requiring more studies to produce more clear results Who should wear a mask?
Health mask is applicable to people of all ages. A group of people who should use a health mask very much to prevent the spread of infection from themselves to others. Or prevent yourself from being infected by other patients, including
Those who have to be close or have close contact with respiratory disease patients People with respiratory illnesses that must be close to normal people Or have to go out of the house Those who have to enter the infected risk area Or places with patients with respiratory diseases such as hospitals or places with crowded people, etc. How to wear the correct mask
Properly wearing a mask will help users prevent germs and pollution to their fullest potential. Which should follow
General masking methods
Wash hands, clean, to prevent infection on the hands. Choose the size of the appropriate mask If a child should choose a specific size so that the mask is not too big. Put the mask to fit the face. By facing the colored side And let the side with the wire on top If it is a colorless mask To observe the crease of the mask If the corner of the crease is pointing down the bottom, it will be outside of the mask. While wearing a mask If it is a mask that has to tie the end of the rope together To tie the bottom rope at the neck The top line binds the head. If it is a type of elastic strap Loop on both ears Then squeeze the wire to fit the nose Will make the health mask fit to the face Pull the mask to close the mouth, nose and chin. How to wear a N95 mask
Hold a mask in the palm of your hand And cover the mouth and nose mask Pull the strap of the mask on the bottom, hold the head and pull it down under the ear.
FRANCE 24 Live – International Breaking News & Top stories - 24/7 stream https://youtu.be/J78SdCzzumA
College Group Works to Gather Data on Access, Completion
4 hours ago
Public policy and government graduate students hold inflatable globes during Harvard University commencement exercises, Thursday, May 24, 2018, in Cambridge, Mass. (AP Photo/Michael Dwyer)
Unlike many other countries, the United States does not have one single governing body that sets education policy for the entire nation.
The Department of Education creates some rules. But the way in which schools operate is mostly decided by the individual states. Some say this gives schools more freedoms to serve the different needs of different populations.
Yet many experts argue there is a need for a more united effort for exploring ways to improve the education system. This argument is especially common within the American higher education community.
For example, the Institute for College Access and Success last month released a report calling for the federal government to improve data reporting. The organization asked the government to create a single measurement of job placements for college graduates.
But one organization has decided not to wait for the government to take action. Instead, it is aiming to create one of the largest joint efforts to gather information about the higher education experience in the nation’s history.
In this May 24, 2010 file photo, future graduates wait for the procession to begin for the graduation ceremony at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.
Filling the holes left by the Department of Education
Ricardo Torres is the president of the National Student Clearinghouse, an independent, non-profit education organization. He says higher education community members created the organization nearly 15 years ago because of a lack of data reporting on the part of the federal government.
The Department of Education does have a system for reporting information about colleges and universities. It is called the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, or IPEDs.
But Torres argues that this system is lacking in several ways. For example, up until 2017, it only published data on first-time, full-time college students. Torres notes that, before 2017, the system did not look at part-time students and it did not publish the rate of college completion by low-income students receiving federal aid. Also, it still does not look at students who change schools.
Torres told VOA, “The fact that you have all these ways to complete a journey creates a giant complexity, and that’s called keeping track of who is actually completing and how institutions are able to help a learner along the way.”
This kind of information is very important, Torres says. It can affect how soon college students must begin paying back their student loans. And it greatly affects an institution’s understanding of how well it is serving its students.
The National Student Clearinghouse has worked with over 3,600 institutions to gather and share this kind of data. In 2017, it sought to expand these efforts by testing a new program: the Postsecondary Data Partnership, or PDP. As part of the testing, three state systems and several individual schools shared as much data as they could related to student access to higher education, their academic progress and, finally, their successful completion of college.
In 2018, the PDP expanded to include a larger number of the National Student Clearinghouse’s partner institutions. Torres says the aim is to gather more data from even more institutions this year. This includes information on the kinds of classes students take, their performance in those classes and even their parents’ education background.
Once this information is gathered, PDP researchers process the data and present it to the institutions and other organizations. They aim to present the results in a clear, easy-to-understand way. They also make sure the information schools are reporting is correct, which is important considering they identified 6.5 million errors in the data they gathered last year, Torres says.
Students celebrate their graduation from Columbia State Community College in Columbia, Tennessee
How this data is used
Bruce Vandal says these are exactly the kinds of tools his organization needs to be successful. Vandal is the senior vice president of Complete College America, a partnership of 46 higher education systems and institutions. His group works to make sure that low-income, minority and first-generation students have the chance to attend and succeed in college.
Vandal calls the PDP the most centrally organized data collection effort yet. In the past, schools and education organizations were doing their own disconnected research, often repeating the work others had already done.
“On some level … the field has matured and actually has clarity about the work that could be done,” said Vandal. “And so in that respect, it sort of represents progress in the field, whereas before, you can imagine, everybody sort of had their own take and were looking at different sets of data.”
The Education Department may now be gathering more data, but they still have not decided what their goals for that data are or how to use it, Vandal adds. Having one central body gathering and processing all this data reduces work for the institutions and the organizations they work with.
Instead, the institutions and organizations can spend more time examining efforts to support students, he says. For example, in the past, many institutions placed students who performed poorly in high school into special lower-level math and English classes. This was seen as a chance for these students to prove they were, in fact, ready to perform at the college level in those subjects.
But Complete College America found that a large number of students put in these classes never complete their education. These classes add to the traditional amount of time it takes to complete a study program. So, they increased education costs.
Now, Vandal notes, some institutions have begun to place lower-performing students in normal classes, but with additional support services.
Ricardo Torres says the value of this data is so clear that other countries have asked his group for advice on how to gather information of their own.
I’m Pete Musto.
And I’m Dorothy Gundy.
Pete Musto reported this story for VOA Learning English. Ashley Thompson was the editor.
We want to hear from you. How does your access to, progress through and successful completion of higher education? Write to us in the Comments Section or on our Facebook page.
Anna meets her friend Marsha in a coffee shop. Marsha asks Anna to come to a party. But Anna has to take a driving test. Can Anna come to the party?
In this video, you can practice saying the new words and learn how to show that one event comes after another event.
This video teaches about two ways to pronounce have to.
Anna: Hi there! Washington, D.C. has some great coffee shops. My favorite is this one -- Busboys & Poets.
Anna: Actually it’s more than a coffee shop. It’s also a bookstore, a restaurant and a theater!
Anna: Marsha and I love coming here.
Marsha: Hey, Anna, my friend is having a party on Saturday. Can you come with me?
Anna: Sorry, I can’t come with you. I have to get my driver’s license.
Marsha: Will you be busy all day?
Anna: I don’t know. First, I have to take a test on the computer. Then I have to take a test in the car.
Marsha: But you have to take the test during the day, don't you?
Marsha: The party is at night.
Anna: Oh. Then I can come with you to the party on Saturday night.
Marsha: Great! I have to help my friend with the party. Can you help me?
Anna: Sure. That sounds like fun.
Marsha: Everyone has to bring something or do something. You can bring food, or you can perform.
Anna: Really, I can perform?
Marsha: You can! Can you?
Anna: Yes! I can recite poetry. (Anna is in a club reciting a poem)
- A poem -
Marsha: In this country, nobody recites poetry at parties. Um … can you do anything else?
Anna: Hmm, yes. I can do a card trick. (Anna is doing a card trick)
Your card is the 10 of diamonds! No?
Pick a card. Any card.
Here, just pick this one.
Marsha: Anna, maybe you can just bring food.
Anna: No, I can’t cook. And I really want to perform. You know, there is one thing I can do. (Anna plays a song on the ukulele and sings)
Trouble in mind. I’m blue...
But I won't be blue always
The sun's gonna shine in my back door some day.*
Marsha: That’s it! You can sing at the party. Now, I have to go shopping for food.
Anna: Can I help? I’m not busy right now.
Marsha: Sure, let’s go!
Anna: We have to go. I have to help Marsha shop. And I have to practice my song! Trouble in mind. I’m blue...
Anna: Until next time!
*The song Trouble in Mind was written by jazz pianist Richard M. Jones.
In this lesson, Marsha asks Anna to come to a party on Saturday. What do you like to do on the weekends? Write to us to tell us about what you plan to do next weekend. Send us an email or write in the Comments section.
Use the Activity Sheet to practice talking about your talents and skills.
Activity Sheet Lesson 21
Learning Strategies are the thoughts and actions that help make learning easier or more effective.
The learning strategy for this lesson iscooperate. When we work together to help others we are cooperating. We also cooperate when we help someone understand their second language.
In this lesson, Marsha tells Anna about a party. Everyone who comes to the party cooperates by bringing food or performing something. Anna wants to cooperate by performing at the party.
Can you find another time in the video when Anna or Marsha cooperate? Write to us in the Comments section or send us an email. Teachers, see the Lesson Plan for more details on teaching this strategy.
Check your understanding and practice your listening skills with this quiz.
bookstore- n. a store that sells books card - n. a small piece of stiff paper that is used for playing games
day - n. the part of the day when light from the sun can be seen
driver’s license- n. an official document or card which shows that you have the legal right to drive a vehicle
else - adv. used to refer to a different or additional person or thing
night - n. the time of darkness between one day and the next perform - v. to entertain an audience by singing or acting poetry - n. the writings of a poet recite - v. to read (something) out loud or say (something) from memory test - n. a set of questions or problems that are designed to measure a person's knowledge, skills, or abilities
trick - n. a clever and skillful action that someone performs to entertain or amuse people
Unit 8: News Review How to use the language from the latest news stories
Google has been fined by a French regulator for breaking new European laws aimed at protecting people's data. The company hasn't kept users "sufficiently informed" about how it collects data to personalise advertising, according to the regulator.
France has fined Google $57 million for breaching new European Union laws on data and content. It's the biggest penalty so far for breaking the laws. French prosecutors said Google was not clear enough about how it was using people's personal information to target them with adverts.
Key words and phrases
murky unclear and possibly dishonest
• She's such a nice person that you'd never believe her murky past. • The historical account is murky. No one knows what really happened.
to the tune of to the amount of
• Ronaldo signed a contract with Juventus to the tune of €100 million. • He received compensation for his injury to the tune of £20 thousand.
flunked failed an assessment
• I'm going to flunk my English test – I don't understand anything! • Dan nearly flunked out of university in his second year. Too much partying!
Try our quiz to see how well you've learned today's language.
News Review quiz
Now you've watched the video, try to answer these questions about the language in the news.
We hope you enjoyed News Review. You can find more episodes here.
Can Thaksin make a political comeback?
politics January 27, 2019 08:46
By Philip Olingai The Star Asia News Network
“ELECTIONS are finally here – on March 24” was the front page headline on Thursday of The Nation, an English-language newspaper in Thailand.
Finally, almost five years after ousting the elected government of Prime Minister Yingluck Shina-watra with the barrel of a gun, the military junta has called for an election.
The March 24 elections will end the military rule that began in 2014. Army chief Prayut Chan-o-cha led a bloodless coup that toppled the government then led by the Pheu Thai party. The coup leader took over as prime minister.
What happened to Shinawatra then was history repeating itself.
In 2006, the military launched a coup against her brother, then Prime Minister Thaksin Shina-watra, when he was in New York City to attend the United Nations General Assembly.
I remember that coup. At that time, I was The Star’s Thailand correspondent based in Bangkok and also the Asia News Network (ANN) editor.
That night, I was home in Bangna near Bangkok when I received a phone call saying there was an ongoing coup. I rushed to the nearby The Nation office where I worked.
Thasong Asvasena, a journalist from The Nation, told me not to worry as friendly soldiers had arrived to secure the newspaper’s premises. I looked out the window and saw armed soldiers surrounding the building.
It was called the Happy Coup as many Bangkokians hated Thaksin. They were delighted to see the end of his reign.
But that was not the end of Thaksin’s political grip on Thailand. The billionaire is like the Terminator. He’ll be back – through political parties linked to him.
Although he was in self-imposed exile, his party, the People Power Party (PPP, a reincarnation of his Thai Rak Thai party which had been banned by the military junta) won the election in 2007.
A year later PPP lost power in a “judicial coup” in which Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat, who is married to Thaksin and Yingluck’s sister, was forced from office by a Constitutional Court ruling. The court disbanded PPP for electoral fraud and barred its leaders from participating in politics for five years.
Opposition leader Abhisit Vejjajiva, from the Democrat party, formed a coalition and became Prime Minister.
In 2011, an election was called. Pheu Thai (the reincarnation of the banned PPP) won in a landslide victory and Yingluck became Thailand’s first female prime minister.
In 2014, the military seized power. It was the country’s 12th coup d’etat since the first in 1932.
Now, in 56 days, Thais will go to the polls. The big question is, can the self-exiled Thaksin, whose party has never lost an election, make a political comeback through his Pheu Thai alliance?
On Friday in Bangkok, I met Sean Boonpracong, a former national security adviser to Prime Minister Yingluck, and Cod Satrusayang, the managing editor of ANN, to get their insights into Thai politics.
“Can Thaksin make a comeback?” I asked them in separate interviews.
“Absolutely, because essentially the Thai Rak Thai, PPP and Pheu Thai parties – which are the incarnations of Thaksin’s political base – know how to capture the political aspirations of the people,” said Boonpracong.
After more than four years in power, the military junta could not deliver what the people wanted, he said.
Boonpracong said early polls – by various credible pollsters – indicate that Pheu Thai and its allies, such as Thai Raksa Chart and Future Forward (led by auto parts billionaire Thanathorn Juangroong-ruangkit), could win 272 to 300 seats for MPs out of 500.
“It looks like Pheu Thai will still win. Despite the odds stacked against them, despite the military drafting a Constitution that’s supposed to be anti-them, despite the redrawing of the constituencies, they will still win,” said Satru-sayang.
The question now, said the ANN editor, is not whether Pheu Thai will win – “But whether they’ll win by a large enough margin so that the other side can’t call in the clause that can put in place an unelected prime minister who is not an MP,” he said.
The electoral odds are stacked in favour of the military junta, though.
There will be 750 representatives – 500 MP posts (constituency and party lists) from the lower house of Parliament (like our Dewan Rakyat) up for grabs and 250 from the upper house (like our Dewan Negara) comprising junta appointees and military brass. These 750 people will decide who will be prime minister.
In theory, the junta needs parties aligned to it, such as Phalang Pracharat, to have 126 MPs win seats as it has 250 senators (who are not elected, remember). The math is 126 + 250 = 376, which is a simple majority.
Whereas Pheu Thai and its allies have to have 376 MPs win to form the government, as the 250 senators are all junta appointees.
In a nutshell, the junta leaders can still remain in power even without an elected representative majority.
Even if Pheu Thai and its allies win most of the votes, there is no guarantee that it can form the government because the electoral system favours the military junta, said Boonpracong.
“Pheu Thai (and its allies) have to win the lower house seats overwhelmingly,” he said.
When I was working in Bangkok from 2006 to 2010, Thailand was divided into two groups: “I love Thaksin” and “I hate Thaksin”. There was no middle ground. And those who loved Thaksin hated those who hated Thaksin. And those who hated Thaksin had no love for those who loved Thaksin.
Thaksin has been in voluntary exile since 2006, and I was curious to know whether he is still a divisive figure.
Well, after more than four years of junta rule, the divisiveness – based on social media postings – has reduced, Boonpracong said.
“As he has not been in power for 12 years, essentially, they (those who hate him) can’t blame Thailand’s ills on the bogeyman that is Thaksin,” he said.
Satrusayang said Thaksin is really popular in rural areas, especially in the north-east and north. The former prime minister, he said, is still popular among the poor because of his populist policies, such as cheap health care and loans when he was in power.
“They also have a feeling that they voted for this guy and the Bangkok elites keep overthrowing him over and over again – as if they know better. There’s an us (the poor in the north and north-east) against them (elite Bangkokians) mentality,” he said.
Boonpracong said: “Thaksin is just a politician who we should not overpraise. But overall he has he has done a lot of good for the people on the periphery who make up 70% of the bottom rung of Thai society.
“He has moved the earth to make their life better economically,” he said.
Bangkokians, Boonpracong feels, are less angry at Thaksin. “They feel that Thailand’s economic performance the last five years under the junta has been less dynamic than our neighbours’,” he said.
Satrusayang, however, feels that Thaksin is still hated by most Bangkok people. But there’s not as much intensity between the red shirts (pro-Thaksin) and yellow shirts (anti-Thaksin), he said.
“The yellows and reds agree that they hate the military more because it has been in power for too long,” he said.
“The yellows aren’t going to vote for Pheu Thai and reds won’t vote for the Democrats (or junta aligned parties) but the military is the central figure of hate now.”
According to Satrusayang, this is because when the military came into power it promised that it would be gone in a year.
“Now it has been more than four years. They kept on postponing the elections, they keep on lying, they keep on infringing on civil liberties.”
The military junta, except for Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha, is not popular, said Satrusayang.
“Prayut is decently popular because he is seen as a funny uncle. But Deputy Prime Minister Prawit Wongsuwan is hated because of his watch scandal,” he said. (Wongsuwan is said to own a collection of undeclared luxury watches.)
It looks like Thaksin’s alliance will win the popular vote but it won’t be easy for it to form the government.
It needs about 100 senators to switch sides or for the junta (under pressure from a higher power) to blink on polling night.
Japan's Naomi Osaka poses with the championship trophy during the presentation ceremony after her victory against Czech Republic's Petra Kvitova.
Japan tennis fans hail 'new Queen' Osaka
sports January 27, 2019 05:36
It was an agonising two hours and 27 minutes but Japanese tennis fans burst into tears and shouts of joy Saturday as Naomi Osaka sealed her second straight Grand Slam.
Supporters in a packed Tokyo bar had a rollercoaster ride watching the action from the Australian Open final as their heroine Osaka contrived to give up three Championship points in the second set.
But as Osaka claimed victory and sunk to her knees in triumph and disbelief, fans let out the pent-up emotion following a thrilling see-saw battle with eighth seed Petra Kvitova from the Czech Republic.
They punched the air, clapped hands and gave each other hugs and high fives as shouts of joy rang around the B ONE bar in upmarket Ginza, replacing earlier chants of "Naomi! Naomi! Naomi!"
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe led his nation's congratulations, hailing an "impressive victory in a very tight game".
"I'm so proud of the birth of the new world queen," tweeted Abe.
In securing victory in Melbourne after her stunning win over Serena Williams in the US Open last year, Osaka also clinched the world number-one spot, the first Asian to do so.
Her US Open victory was the first by a Japanese player and she is now the youngest woman to win back-to-back majors since Martina Hingis in 1998 and the youngest number one since Caroline Wozniacki in 2010.
With her gutsy performance in Melbourne backing up her breakthrough in New York, Osaka confirmed herself as the new star in the women's game and fans were expecting her to kick on from here.
"She can win much, much more! I want her to win on grass... I want her to win at Wimbledon!" Masako Takeda said at the bar as she wiped away tears of joy.
Another fan, Aki Tani, praised Osaka for being "humble but playing boldly" on court.
"I'm so happy that we can tell she has grown so much over the past two years!" she said.
Nozomi Hirabayashi noted it was "unthinkable before" that a Japanese player could become the world's best.
"I'm so proud," he said. "I want her to win the next Grand Slam as she is very mentally strong."
News flashes screamed across Japanese networks after the nail-biting match.
The Sankei newspaper tweeted: "She scored a remarkable win that makes us see 'the Era of Naomi' coming up."
Osaka has a Japanese mother, a Haitian father and was raised in the United States.
She has dual Japanese-American citizenship and often replies to questions from Japan's media in English, apologising for not knowing the appropriate word when she speaks Japanese.