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Posted by , ҹ : 1957 , 14:18:45 .  
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ѡԴͪǾط

 

 

           Ǿطѡ͡õѴԹҧ դ繢Ѵѡ͹ õդ ûоĵԻԺѵ ҧҧҵͧ١ ҧն֧鹡աѹ оطͧ· ֧Ҵѧ

ҷ԰ ͧ觡Ÿ 

      [] ١ԡط 觷繹Եͧ 觴ǧҷԵͨط  ʧԹʧͧ ѹ ١ԡط. 觷繹Եͧ觡Ÿ. ҷ԰ ѹ͹ѹ
("ؾѧٵ" ͧ.ʡ.Ѻǧ //)

ѨԴҷԯ

 
 . (§ҡ áеͪѡ٧ҡ¹͡ Ѻѧй͹ ¹ ʹҫѡ ѧӺ͡Ҫѡ٧ͧ ੾СʴѺѷҡҹ繡ҳԵ ѡԴ Դ Դ ѧ§ ੾ѵ »Ѩغѹ ˹ѧ;ûԮ ˹ѧ͸еҧ ѧ͢ Ҩ١ҴաҤúǹ Դ鹤Դͧ ӵ繪鹶 ִ᤺繢ͧ ٶ١褹 )


  . ¹ԡ (Դ١Ը ѡԴ ԴԨó ͡зº ͧ觷´¤ԴԹԨԨóͧҧͺͺǹͧ ѡ׺˵ؼ ¡觹 ѭҹ ͡ 繵е繨ԧ ѹ׺ԷѻѨµ˵ػѨ ֧ͧ鹡Դҡ˧ҢͧԵ)
( . //; ͧ.ء. //; . ..ص)

Ӥѭͧ  ¹ԡ

ѵ--->ѧ--->ѷ--->¹ԡ---> ʵѭ---> Թ6---> بԵ3---> ʵԻѯҹ4---> ⾪7---> Ԫ+ص.        

( ---> = "Ժó ѧ...Ժó", äѵ Ժó ѧÿѧѷԺó ÿѧѷԺó ѧѷԺó...,   ҹҡ  ---> = "..." ,  Ԫص ⾪ 7   ⾪ 7 ʵԻѯҹ 4 ...)

ǵѳ <---Ԫ <---ó 5 <---بԵ 3 <---Թ 6 <---ʵѭ <---º(¹ԡ) <---ѷ <---ѧ <---褺ѵ.        

( <--- = "...", ǵѳ Ԫ  Ԫ չó 5 ...,  ҹҡ <--- = "Ժó ѧ...Ժó" 褺ѵɷԺó ѧѧѷԺó ѧѷԺó ѧѷԺó... )

 (" Ԫٵѳٵ "  ͧ.ʡ/-/-)

 ҡÿѧҡѵɴ¹ԡ ʵѭ ʵԻѯҹ 4 ش֧Ԫص

Ѳҡâͧšصڵҷԯ
ѭ---> ѭԹ---> ѭҼ---> Ԩ⾬---> ҷԯ---> ͧä  ( "Ҩѵʡٵ" ..  // )

;鹰ҹͧǾط ѷ ҷԯ  

ѷ 4 ( ͷСͺ˵ؼ )

1. ѷ (͡, ͡觡, ҡԧ ͷਵ 㨷ӷ 繡 繤Ǥբ㹵 ˵ػѨ¡ԴŴռ׺ͧ áзҧ Ҽŷͧè¡áз ͹͹͹͹⪤ 繵 )
2. Իҡѷ (Ժҡ, ͼŢͧ, ҼŢͧըԧ ҡǵͧռ мŵͧ˵ ŴԴҡ ŪԴҡ )
3. ʡѷ (ͤѵա繢ͧ, ФҢͧ еͧѺԴͺԺҡ仵ͧ )
4. Ҥ⾸ѷ (ͤͧоط, ͧеҤ ҷç繾ط çФس 9 С ʸ ѭѵԹ´ ҡҵ ç繼ӷҧʴ ҷء ҡ֡´ öҶ֧Ը٧ش طش ѧͧçẺҧ )
(. ..ص)

ѷ 3 ͵鹹ػ ѡ  

. (աѵͧ) 


. (ա繷ҷѺôͧ ա繼) 


. ¹ (աᴹԴ-ҡԴ) 


. ѹ (ա繼Դ Ҿѹ, 繾ѹѵԵҧ ѹ෾ѹ 繵) 


. (ա繷) 

ҷӡ ա ǡ ѡͧѺŢͧ 
ṡѵлгյ
( “̡ѧٵ.. / /; ǴԳ˻ѨǡҰ )

ҷԯ

       [] ١ԡط ҷ԰Էѧ ǹ觺ح (حڭҤ) ѹ (ػǻڡ)䩹 繴ѧ 
. ҹ ռ (͵ڶ Թڹ)
. ѭ٪ ռ (͵ڶ ԯڰ
. ѧ·ǧǧ ռ (͵ڶ ص
. ԺҡͧӴ Ӫ (͵ڶ ءءڡҹ ҹ Ի
. š (͵ڶ )
. š˹ (͵ڶ )
. ô (͵ڶ ҵ
. Դ (͵ڶ Ե)
. ѵ ػҵԡ (͵ڶ ʵڵ ͻҵԡ)
. Թͺ ԺѵԪͺ 觻Сšš˹ 觴µͧ š (͵ڶ ڤ һԻڹ ڨ š íڨ š ԭڭ ʨکԡ ෹ڵյ)
ҷ԰Էѧ ǹ觺ح ѹ  
( "Ҩѵʡٵ" .. // )

       + ͨ. ҧҹ͸Ժ "ԯѧ" յ-ླ-Ըա ( ѹӤѭҧʹ ҧ ѹҢ٪ Ҧ ѹ Ըաҧʹҵҧ 蹷ѵǴ ҹȾ Ըա Ըաѹ 繵) աú٪ ֡ ӹ֡ ѧ ˹¡ ǡзӤѭ ԴŴ繡 ǹ觺ح ҧ Դԭ Ѳ ҧԵ (صѧ) ԯѧ Դصѧ Դ Ѻ ԵѺʫҺ駨ԴžѲҷҧѹ-Եԭҳ 
       ++ ҧ˹ѧẺšѹԴ١ ҧͨ. դ¶֧حس (觻ضت仡 繵ͧдѺѾѭصҳͧоط) ҧͨ. ͡¶֧繾ҧԵԭҳ зԴ¹ԷҧԵԭҳشԴ (ͻҵԡ¹)ҧ ѵ ͻҵԡ (ԧö) ¨ҡҵԻضتԴªҵ غѵ෾ ʴҺѹ ʡԷҤ ͹Ҥ ѹ ѹ ط෾  ҧԭҳ ͷҧԭҳ ѭ ͤͻѭ ⾸Ԭ ͤä ͹ҧоطºͧ繾 պص§ ҹ 繾ҧ ҧԵԭҳ ·ºؤԴ, 蹹 + šҧҧѧҹ ʹҡ͡ѹ  ͧ¾Ѿѭصҳ  ֧֡šҧԵԭҳ š¶֧ " šš "  š˹¶֧ " ššص "  çԸ觨ṡԵ " š " Եšš ШԵššص   繤͸Ժ·ʹǷҧǡѹ - еçط " šѹԵ Ե൹ µ " " ˹仡͹ ˭ Ǵ ⹻ؾھڤ ʯڰ "

ٵ ʻصٵ

1. ͹ǹ (һŧ ¡ÿѧѹ — Be not led by report)


2. ڻ (һŧ ¡ö׺ ѹ — Be not led by tradition)


3. Եԡ (һŧ ¡ — Be not led by hearsay)


4. ԯڻ๹ (һŧ ¡ҧͤ — Be not led by the authority of texts)


5. ڡ˵ (һŧ еá — Be not led by mere logic)


6. ˵ (һŧ С͹ҹ — Be not led by inference)


7. ҡûԵࡹ (һŧ ¡äԴͧ˵ؼ — Be not led by considering appearances)


8. ԯڰԹԪڬҹڢڵ (һŧ ѺɮշԹԨ — Be not led by the agreement with a considered and approved theory)


9. ھٻ (һŧ ͧٻѡɳйҨ — Be not led by seeming possibilities)


10. ٵ (һŧ йѺ ҹй繤٢ͧ — Be not led by the idea, ‘This is our teacher’.)


 11.***    ֧µͧ ҹ͡ ¹ ͻԺѵԺԺó ͤ繻ª͡ ͷء ͹ иҹ
           ֧µͧ ҹ繡 ԭ ͻԺѵԺԺó ͻª͡ آ ͹ öͻԺѵԸҹ

 ( "ʻصٵ" "ٵ" ͧ.ԡ. //-; . ..ص )

       һŧ㨻ѡִ蹨 Է ʨڨԹʡ¤ڶ ҵԷǤͧٻҡִ㹤繼ԴͧҶ١ 繼ҼԴ ( Ǵѹ ѵ⪵ԡ ѷ⪵ԡ Ҩ )

        - Ѻ Ӥѭѡͧ  ػش( ) ¹ԡ

ѡѴԹԹ 7


1. ͡ѹԾԷ (˹ԧ, ŧԺ, ˹ҧش)
2. Ҥ (¡˹Ѵ, ִԴѴ )
3. ø (Ѻ, ء )
4. ػ (ʧ, ʧӧѺ )
5. ԭ (, Ѵ )
6. ( )
7. Ծҹ (Ծҹ )
ҹ ֧繸 Թ ѵʹ ͤ͹ͧʴ; Ǵ غ
( "ѵʹٵ" ͧ.ʵڵ. // )

ѡѴԹԹ 8


1. Ҥ ( ¡˹Ѵ, Դѹ , ͤ˹Ѵ Դ)
2. ѧ¤ ( ͧ١Ѵ, Сͺء ,ͼ١Ѵ ͻСͺء, ҡ)
3. ͻ ( ͡ٹ , ;͡ٹ, )
4. ѻԨ ( ҡѹ, ѡ, ͤҡѹ˭, ѡ˭ ѡҡҡ˭, Ҩ)
5. ѹد ( ѹ , ͤѹ, 㨾, ѹ㹻Ѩ ѹ㹤 )
6. ǡ ( ʧѴ, ͤء, ʧѴҡ )
7. ( ûСͺ, ͤ¨ҹ)
8. õ ( §, ͤ§ҡ)
ҹ ֧繸 Թ ѵʹ ͤ͹ͧʴ; Ǵ йҧһҺ⤵
(Թ. //; "ѧԵٵ" ͧ.ͯڰ. //-)

       ( ɮվ§-§ǧ ++ ¨ ѹǹ¡Ԩçҹ㨾 ҡ 觻ѹм ҡҹ鹡š¹͢ )

ѡѴԹҷ-͸ҷ

       [ ] ԡ ͤҴҧ ͤ ͤҷ ͤͩ ͸ԡóʧ
зվպص繵 ҺŶмվҤ лԺѵԵ;ǡԡط.ҹҧ 
çѺ “ҧҧͺԴ ֧Һ͸ҷԡ ҷԡشѵ Сôѧ
ѡɳТͧԡ͸ҷ ҧ 
. ʴ͸ 繸 
. ʴ ͸
. ʴԹ Թ 
. ʴԹ Թ 
. ʴ觷赶ҤԵ ҤԵ  
. ʴ觷赶ҤԵ ҤԵ  
. ʴѵ÷赶ҤоĵҵҤоĵ 
. ʴѵ÷赶ҤоĵҵҤоĵ 
. ʴ觷赶ҤѭѵҵҤѭѵ 
. ʴ觷赶ҤѭѵҵҤѭѵ 
. ʴ͹ҺѵҺѵ 
. ʴҺѵ͹Һѵ 
. ʴҺѵҺѵ˹ѡ 
. ʴҺѵ˹ѡҺѵ 
. ʴҺѵԷǹҺѵԷǹ 
. ʴҺѵԷǹҺѵԷǹ 
. ʴҺѵԪҺҺѵҺ 
. ʴҺѵҺҺѵԪҺ 
ѡɳТͧԡظҷ ҧ 
. ʴ͸͸ 
. ʴ繸 
. ʴ觷ԹԹ 
. ʴԹԹ 
. ʴ觷赶ҤԵ ҵҤԵ  
. ʴ觷赶ҤԵ ҵҤԵ  
. ʴѵ÷赶ҤоĵҵҤоĵ 
. ʴѵ÷赶ҤоĵҵҤоĵ 
. ʴ觷赶ҤѭѵҵҤѭѵ 
. ʴ觷赶ҤѭѵҵҤѭѵ 
. ʴ͹Һѵ͹Һѵ 
. ʴҺѵҺѵ 
. ʴҺѵҺѵ 
. ʴҺѵ˹ѡҺѵ˹ѡ 
. ʴҺѵԷǹҺѵԷǹ 
. ʴҺѵԷǹҺѵԷǹ 
. ʴҺѵԪҺҺѵԪҺ 
. ʴҺѵҺҺѵҺ 
("բѹ ѯѵء " Թ.//-)

       ͧԹ ôٷͧТʹ ͹ºҹͧҵͧਵҺѭѵԢһʧ з㨶֧âͧԹ¹ç ѡҶ͵ѹҺ˵ؼ ǹԴ ԹСµҧӤѭͧਵѹѺá ("ਵ Ƿ, ਵԵ ¹ Ҩ " = "ԡط. ҡ ਵҹ繡 ਵ ؤзӡ·ҧ Ҩ ") ͡ա˹觤 "ͧਵ" ͧ
       Թ¾Ӥѭʤբǩ Ҫԡ ѧҷ , ӨѴԡشҺѵԻҪԡ ӨѴԡشҺѵԻҪԡ Һѵѧҷ, ԡ ԴҺѵԪҺ(Ҫԡ+ѧҷ)ͧԡ ҺѵԻҨԵ, ӨѴԡشҺѵѧҷ ҺѵԻҨԵ, ԡѺʵ    㹷ѺѺ ͹µ ҧҺѵԻҨԵ

       ҧҪԡ ⡧ ѡ͡ Ѿ 1 ҹ ѡҹú 駾ҹѵ-͡-ؤ Ǥ׹ԹѧͶ١Ѻ Ҩ¨ҡҪԡ ʴҺѵ ԧѹҪԡá 繤Ѻ Ҩ繾дռŧҹӤسªʹһЪҪ ѹͧѹҨźҧҺѵԹ

ѡԺѵԦʵ;ʧ͹ҧѹԺѵԵҧѹ

       ͹ҶԳԡ˺ ҧҢ ҷŶͻԺѵ " ·ҹԡط Ǩѧ ( - ѧҧ ǹѴԹ) Ǩ㹤 ١ ͺ Ͷ ͧԡؽ¸ҷҹ (ѧ¹ԡ жҨԡҵԡԡ͸ҷ ѧ) "
(" բѹ" Թ./-/-)

ѡһ

       [] оطҹحҵѵѻ(觷)͡ѻ (觷)
. ١ԡط. 㴷 觹 ҡ觹ҡѺ觷 ѴѺ觷 觹ͷ.
. 觷 觹 ҡ觹ҡѺ觷 ѴѺ觷 觹鹤
. 㴷͹حҵ 觹 ҡ觹ҡѺ觷 ѴѺ觷 觹
. 㴷͹حҵ 觹 ҡ觹ҡѺ觷 ѴѺ觷 觹鹤
(Թ. //- )

       ҧһ Ѻ ӹѡѴਹҼԴŢͷ 繢ֹͧ ҧᾷɵآҾʾԴ (١͹) кҧӹѡҧբ ( ԧ չ ѭ ҹҵդŢ᤺ ¾طѧ ) һҨѺ ҡѺ " 觹 ҡ觹ҡѺ觷 ѴѺ觷 觹 ͡ѻ " 繵 

       ͤ֡ҾԨóǡѺ Ѿػҷҹ  Ѿ
        Ѿػҷҹ ( Ǵػҷҹ) ִػҷҹоõ ѡоĵ ͻԺѵ ẺἹ º Ը ླ ѷԾԸյҧ Ҩеͧҧ ѡҡз׺ ѹ ͻԺѵԵ ѹҧ ¹Ңѧ ѡԷ 仴¤㨵ѡѹ˵м 駷ѹԴ¹ Ҩ觤Ѵ ҷԯ ǹѾ (Ǵѧª 鹵) ¤ ԺѵŻԺѵԾõҧ ٺ Ѻ樴 ҧԧѧ ҧ ѧ֧ä֧ Ҩҷ԰ Ѿػҷҹ 軯Ժѵԧѧ ٺ ѧ֧Ե ѧ֧ͧ ֧ѧҶ֧ä 鹼Ũԧ

       ҧöžõҾԨó Ңžػҷҹ ûह ҧѴ-ҧ ѺǴ¡ͧͧ͢¡ Ѻҡ¹  (Թ. /; /) ʴਵѴਹҵ㨶ǾѺҺ ѧҡ Ъ¡ê¨Ѵͧҧ ջѭ ѧ繢ͧ ҧ-ҧ еͧա ⴹ ͧहء ͺҧ ͧ͡͹ ͧ˹ѡͧ͹ ҾЪѡ͡Ѻ͹ ҢҴह ͧह ͺҧ Ҵûह ҧʶҴ÷ѧह ͧह Щй зҧҴõԴѹ Ѻǵͧ¡͡ҧ͡͹Сѹ ǤҧҴ÷हǴ¡ѹҹ鹵Դѹ ͹ӻҹ㹵繵ͧԺ͡һहТǴСͧ лह¡е繷 㹡ͧѧ˭ͧԺһहЪ ;¡ͧ˹ѡͧ͹¾鹾 ҧյͧ¡ѹ¤ ¡¾ ѹТҴ ѡѹоҴⴹҪ͹ͧ͢͹ˡǡ

*** ػ ***

  • ѡǧҷԯ + ¹ԡ
  • ѡ ѷ + ҷԯ
  • ѡѴԹԹ ٵ ( + ) + ѡѴԹԹ + ѡѴԹԹ + ѡѴԹҷ-͸ҷ + ѡһ
  • ѡԺѵʧ͹ҧѹԻҵҧѹ ·ҹ ѧ ѡ÷.ǢҧѴԹ ͡¸ҷҹ

       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ԧö : ͻҵԡ

  1.  ١պص ͻҵԡСԴ䩹? Ǵ ѵá ҧӾǡ õҧӾǡ ¡ ͻҵԡСԴ

  ջصڵ ͻҵԡ ¹  ԡ ͡   ͡  ԹԻҵԡ  بڨ ջصڵ ͻҵԡ ¹             (Դ .. /)

      2.  мվҤçҺؤ ·çԡº ੾оͧ “ ؤŹͻԺѵԵ͹ ѡ ͻҵԡ ѧªͧ  С ԹԾҹšǹѺҨҡšա“

ҹҵ    ؤڤ ڨڵ ¹ԡ  ؤڤ ¶ҹԯڰ һԻڪ ڨڹ Ҥҹ ʭ⭪ҹ ԡڢ ͻҵ ʵ ڶ ԹԾھ ͹ǵڵԸ  šҵ 

( ѧࡵͻҵԡ¡͹Ҥҹ ͻҵԡ¡ºؤŢ ʵһ ʵʡҤ ʵͻҵ ʵ  ѺҨ ŵç ѡͻҵԡ ǹѺǧѾ͹ҤԹ. .. /-㹺ҧ ʵһ ˵ ʡҤ ˵ ͻҵ ˵ ѵҹѵ-Ѩغѹ Ѻѧӡ() "ʢٵ" ͧ ԡ. / , 㹺ҧ¡͹Ҥ ӡ "ٵ"  .. /- )

 




ʴԴ


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